Taken by Surprise

The Scientific American page linked below is titled 'Why the Mexico City Earthquake Shook Up Disaster Predictions.'

For the education of those in the Cascadia region, let us consider why this M7.1 quake --- which occurred Tuesday, September 19, 2017 (1)(2) --- shook up disaster predictions.


The Scientific American page states: "Tuesday's deadly quake did not come from the place many geologists thought would unleash the next 'big one'."

About this time, it would be very logical to ask, "Could the same thing happen in the Cascadia region? Could the next, massive and deadly Cascadia quake come from a place which most geologists have not even considered?"

The comprehensive document you are now reading considers a geologic feature --- a deeply buried geologic feature --- which the writer believes could be the initiator of the next, extensive Cascadia megaquake event. This particular geologic feature appears to be one which the scientific community, at large, has been ignoring.


An Earlier Event

There is an unusual seismic event which is noted in the history of the United States. As the writer has studied the unique geology of the Cascadia region, he wonders if there is a possibility that a similar type of event could happen here --- similar, by way of an extended period of multiple large quakes.

In 1811 and into 1812, the massive New Madrid earthquake event occurred. This event has been listed by some as being one major earthquake event (1). But, it was a major earthquake which included many seismic events (2), one after the other.

In the main New Madrid event, it appears that there were more than 2,000 earthquakes in all (3)(4). This extended seismic event began in December of 1811, and lasted into March of 1812.

Over a period of nearly four months, the people of this region were shaken, again and again. But there is even more to this story. A USGS page, linked here, states: "Hundreds of aftershocks were felt in 1813." So, in all, this was a very extended time of shaking.

Considering the unique geology in the Cascadia region, plus along the whole West Coast of North America, could a similar, rather extended, multi-quake event happen here? Are you prepared to be thrown into a shaky world?


Why Be Prepared ?

The King5.com page linked below it titled 'Why you need to be prepared: These are the 3 big earthquake threats.'

The page declares: "The western half of Washington state is considered earthquake country, with the potential for very large quakes."

Three seismic hazards noted are the Cascadia Subduction Zone, the Seattle Fault, and the South Whidbey Island Fault. These faults are capable of producing quakes with "magnitudes from 7 to over 9."



At this point, there is something to note. In this Cascadia report is found information about faults "linking up" in an earthquake event. This "linking up" allows for a much larger magnitude quake event than any one fault could produce on its own. But, there is more to this story.

This report also includes information about one earthquake triggering another earthquake. Depending on the geology, this type of seismic event could include a number of faults and could possibly last for a more extended period of time.

The larger a quake event is, the more damage and destruction it can potentially cause. This can easily translate to more injuries and deaths. So, the bottom line is: You should be properly prepared.

According to the page linked above, properly prepared means "being able to support yourself, your loved ones, your neighborhood for 2 weeks. Because after a region-wide event, it could take that long for help to come from the rest of the country and world."

Just because someone says you better prepared to be on your own "for 2 weeks" does not mean that is the maximum time you should prepare for. Two weeks should actually be THE EXTREME MINIMUM you should prepare for. Yes, it is much better to be safe, than extremely sorry in a hostile environment.

As noted in this Cascadia report, potentially, things could be much worse than is commonly expected. Therefore, a person should logically become prepared to survive on your own for a longer period of time than just 2 weeks.

A more logical and realistic preparation statement could be along these lines:

"Prepare to be on your own, in a potentially unknown and hostile environment, for an indefinite period of time."

This report will help guide you in that direction.


Senior Citizens

The writer falls into this group of people. Yes, he has had many years to research Cascadia and a number of other related things. So, this special section is aimed at those of the senior crowd. It sets a "starting point" for proper preparation.

The AARP website provides certain information which can be of benefit to senior citizens during a serious disaster. It should be noted that this info can potentially be of great value to even the younger generations.

The page linked below is titled A 'Go Bag' Can Make All the Difference in an Emergency. The subtitle states: "Here's how to be ready to run at a moment's notice."

This is all good information, especially to people who could --- at any time --- be caught in a devastating or long-lasting Cascadia earthquake event. Read it and see what it suggests for necessities in a proper "Go Bag." Then get prepared. A bag of this type could help save your life.




For All Ages

Check out the Ready.Gov site. A page from that site, which is linked below, is titled Build A Kit. It gives ideas on putting together and maintaining a workable "Basic Disaster Supplies Kit."

Looking further, the page also talks about considering your unique needs --- unique needs for yourself and your family (etc.) --- when putting together your supplies kit.

This info is good for people of all ages.



The Ready.Gov site also has a page titled Coping with Disaster, which is linked below. It brings up issues which are important to consider.




Look Around You

Just look around you in our world. Look at the many natural disasters which are steadily occurring and all the people which are suffering as a result. There are major, devastating storms, fires, and earthquakes --- along with other things which cause hardship and suffering.

People in the Pacific Northwest --- in the Cascadia region --- are not immune to disaster. You might say: "The people of Cascadia have just been very lucky --- so far." But, as with the "game" of "Russian Roulette," eventually, that time will come.


The Plain Truth

There is something which really needs to be talked about at this point. That is the response of the general public toward disasters which those who have done their research know are coming.

Every now and then, the risk associated with the coming Cascadia earthquake makes it into the news. Yes, they talk about "the Big One" which is on it's way. But, it appears that the warnings are simply having the wrong effect on people

Unfortunately, the people only seem to be getting more and more apathetic toward "the Big One," rather than taking things to heart and getting properly prepared. It appears that their favorite entertainment is much more important than their well-being in the times ahead.

Looking at what is happening with the general public, it's like they must believe that their local government or FEMA can and will instantly swoop in to save them in the time of distress.

Sorry folks, but that just will not happen (1)(2)(3). Even local governments and FEMA may be utterly overwhelmed and largely at a loss during a full-potential and long-lasting Cascadia earthquake event --- especially one with many devastating aftershocks.

Now for a word to the uninitiated. The relatively quiet ("quiet" in geologic terms) Cascadia region is actually an earthquake "hot spot." In its quietude, it is preparing to "cut loose," possibly on a very large scale and at the most inopportune time.

It is not a matter of "IF" the Pacific Northwest will be slammed with a devastating quake. It is only a matter of "WHEN." So get prepared.

There is a truth to consider. Nature can be very unforgiving. If you neglect to become properly prepared at this time, in your potential anguish in the times ahead, you will only have yourself to blame.

Yes, we have tried...


Getting a Plan

The page linked below comes from The Seattle Times. The title of the article is Do you have an earthquake relocation plan? You should.

The article was written by "a nationally known emergency manager," who "was previously director of the King County Office of Emergency Management."

Read the linked page and take it to heart. If you live in the Cascadia region and really intend to be a survivor, most certainly, you should have a workable relocation plan.


What Cascadia is rapidly preparing to dish out, should it unleash its full fury, may not be very pretty. So, there is just a bit of advice to take to heart.

The clock is ticking. Every second brings us closer to a serious Cascadia seismic event. Every breath we take brings us that much closer. Property will be damaged and people will be injured, maimed and, most assuredly, people will be killed... Yes, possibly many people --- more than we would ever like to think about.

Now is the time to get properly educated and mentally prepared. Now is the time to also acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, supplies and other things which may help you to survive in and after a devastating seismic event.


Land Shifting

During a massive seismic event, things change. There is the potential that the whole countryside around us can be changed into something which is then unrecognizable.

It is time for a bit of reality. Major and potentially dangerous shifting in the landmass can occur during large earthquakes. When this shifting starts, there is absolutely nothing we can do to stop it.

Let us begin to look at things on a relatively small scale --- small in comparison to what Cascadia can potentially dish out.

The first set of links below access just a few recent examples of major land shifting which has occurred during a seismic event. Note how this shifting has formed extended rock walls.

The linked examples come from the November 2016 quake in New Zealand. The characteristics of that complex quake, with its major land shifting and other related events, plus the number of ruptured faults, totally surprised and blindsided the scientists. They had never expected something like this quake could ever happen.

This is a wake-up call to those in Cascadia. This region could get hit harder than the scientists are predicting. Even with seismic retrofits, a house, building or other structure built on top of land which moves like this would most likely not survive unscathed.




The pictures linked below are from the M9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964. Look at how the ground, trees and structures can be upheaved in different directions.

Yes, this should be a wake-up call to everyone living in the Cascadia region, because Cascadia has the potential for being torn up even much worse.

At least in the 1964 Alaska earthquake, there were no tall, multi-story buildings or other large structures to collapse or topple over. The same cannot be said for the Cascadia region.




Raised Seafloor

The page linked below is titled How the Chile earthquake created miles of new, "uplifted" coastline.

This M8.8 earthquake and uplift occurred on February 27, 2010. In some areas, uplift was "about 180 cm," or about 71 inches. That is about 6 feet of uplift, which again, created a different coastline.



Pages linked below give further information and pictures relating to this uplift from the 2010 Chile earthquake.


The page above notes that the Chilean quake changed things by "raising the ground by more than 8 feet near the coast and sinking land farther inward." This type of change is worth further consideration.

The page linked below presents further information on the November 2016, M7.8 quake in New Zealand. There are included pics of raised seafloor.



Seeing things like that which is noted above makes a person realize that very unexpected changes can occur in the landmass during a massive earthquake event. So, in Cascadia, be prepared for the totally unexpected, when the mega-quake suddenly occurs.

Furthermore, uplifts like this in coastal areas could potentially cause instant tsunamis. Something along this line occurred during the 1964 Alaska earthquake. So, do not feel safe in believing that you have 15 to 20 minutes to get to higher ground, before the tsunami hits in coastal areas.


This Report

NOTE: The large amount of information presented in this report is simply the findings and opinions of the writer. What you do with this information is your sole responsibility. It is your responsibility to seek professional advise, before acting on any of the information presented herein.

This report is not meant for the casual reader or those looking for someone to give them a rosy picture. This report tells it like it is, or at least how the writer sees it. This report is for those who want a lot of information and facts which they can digest and then come to their own conclusions.

This is a broad spectrum report which considers many facets relating to a Cascadia megaquake event. As all the facets are considered, it becomes much easier to grasp the "big picture" of what may actually be dealt with during one of these events. This report also gives information about preparing for and hopefully surviving a megaquake.

The potential for megaquake epicenters to be far inland, much closer to heavily populated urban areas is noted in this report, in the center column at the level linked here. The potential for there to be much more damage and many more casualties than most emergency planners are preparing for is also considered.


Considering the Information

In this report are numerous links to other sites. Some of these links access periodical-type information and others access articles found in the common news media. Other links access more detailed, scientific-type reports. But all have one thing in common.

Most of the linked pages give just a very limited view, usually of a rather small portion of that "big picture" of what is truly being dealt with in the Cascadia region. A "very limited" picture does not help a lot when it comes to planning for surviving a major seismic event. A "very limited" picture also does not help much when it comes to what may be faced in the aftermath of a massive seismic event.


Connecting the Dots

This report you are now reading works to give a more complete picture. It works to "connect the dots" between the valuable tidbits of information found in various sites. This is done so that all readers may have the opportunity to obtain a better understanding of that which is actually being dealt with, geologically, in the Cascadia region of the United States and Western Canada.


Food for Thought

In this report, the writer presents "food for thought" which is not considered in the many reports which are commonly found on the Internet.

Over the past 16-plus years, the writer has done a considerable amount of research into the geology of the Cascadia region. Over time, he has come to his own conclusions on certain aspects of the geology in this region. He sees certain things which may have a great effect on the nature of the next megaquake event.


A "Public Service"

What you are reading is actually a "public service" report, for it works to present a more complete picture of the earthquake hazard in the Cascadia region.

Only with a more complete picture in mind can people ever begin to truly prepare for the seismic event which is actually facing the Cascadia region.

Only with a more complete picture in mind can people ever begin to plan for life in the aftermath of an extremely devastating seismic event, especially if Cascadia cuts loose with its full potential.

As the writer comes across better information during his research, sections in this report may be added to or even rewritten to reflect the better information. But, in all of this, the general picture presented by this report should not change all that much.

Bottom line is, a full-potential Cascadia event is going to be rough.


Doing His Best

In this document, the writer is doing his best to present a more realistic, well-rounded picture of the geologic hazard in the Cascadia region. He sees the potential for things to be much worse than that which is commonly presented to the public.

Even though this report greatly "raises the bar" on the level of seismic hazard in the Cascadia region, Nature could still "throw a nasty curve" and present us with a devastating situation far beyond anything considered. No living human truly knows the full extent of what Cascadia can do.

At this point, the writer can only say, "You have been forewarned."





A Reality Check

One thing is now getting to be common knowledge in the Cascadia region of the western United States and Canada. There is the potential for a massive, extremely destructive earthquake to occur sometime in the days ahead.

If a full potential earthquake scenario does take place, the devastation may be utterly stunning. The casualties could be far more than is commonly expected. In the end, life in the Cascadia region could be permanently changed.


The Situation

If the Cascadia region happens to get lucky, the stress in the ground may be released in a number of more moderate quakes which cause relatively little damage and hopefully few to no casualties.

But, if the Cascadia region is not lucky, the major faults in the region could suddenly link up and let loose with an immense earthquake scenario. The main event could readily be followed by multiple, very devastating aftershocks which could last for quite a period of time.

In this case, the damage could be extreme, as could also be the number of deaths and injures.


Getting Prepared

So, what should a person do? The most important thing may be to become properly educated and mentally prepared for what a person may be dealing with during and after a massive earthquake which alters the world around us.

The pages accessed via the buttons below have Guides which can help in the area of earthquake education and preparation.


The next step is to prepare as best as possible with survival goods (food, water, clothes, portable shelter, heat source, etc.), in case things do get really primitive after the event (e.g. - grocery stores closed, no fuel, no electricity, no working water systems, no sewers, etc.).

Most of all, try to look at it as preparing for one of life's biggest adventures, rather than operating out of panic. Use the time for learning and growing. As often as possible, considering your situation, go out and do a bit of primitive camping. Learn to enjoy it. Realize that if pushed to it, "I can survive."


Human Nature

What is the response which geologists and scientists are receiving from the general public, when they tell them what is coming and what it will be like, to the best of their knowledge?

One example is shown in a page linked here. Patrick Corcoran is a coastal natural-hazards specialist with Oregon Sea Grant. It is his job to bring the truth about Cascadia to the people. And how does the public generally respond?

The article states:

"People are like" --- he sticks his fingers in his ears --- "Na-na-na-na-na-na-na! Can't hear you!" He shrugs. "It's human nature. People don't like to get bad news."

So I ask, dear Reader, where do you stand in all this? Will you simply ignore things and turn to the distractions of life, or, will you take things more seriously and do the best you can to prepare?

There is the potential that it could be a matter of life or death. The choice is yours.


The Way It Is

If a person cares at all about survival during and after a devastating megaquake event, now is the time to become properly educated and prepared as best as one can in their particular situation.

To become properly educated and prepared, there are a number of important things to consider. This webpage presents many different things. Other Internet sites may present additional information. Check out as many different sites as you can, and then decide what will work best for you in your particular situation.

To become properly prepared, a person first has to understand what they are dealing with, as best as possible. Again, that is the purpose of this webpage --- to give a somewhat well-rounded picture of what a devastating earthquake event may be like.

This page shows a lot of things which people can possibly expect to see happening during and in the aftermath of a massive earthquake. But, Nature has a way of "throwing curves." Therefore, even the information on this page could be an understatement.

Only time will tell the truth about what Cascadia will actually throw at us. All this page can do is present information which may help toward becoming better prepared for whatever will be dealt with.

Furthermore, this page presents potential signs which may help toward alerting people to the coming of a massive earthquake -- hopefully in enough time to allow movement to a safer setting which can help toward reducing the chance of injury or death.


Getting Educated

There is a proper way to use this webpage. First read the main section (to the right).

Once you are able to obtain a more realistic picture of what may be dealt with during a full-blown Cascadia event, then you should be better prepared to fully consider what your particular necessities will be during and after a devastating earthquake event.

This page is simply a "help." It is something to be used to help get you on the road to becoming more prepared. But, all the final decisions are up to you.


Basic Necessities

In preparation for a megaquake event, things like emergency food, shelter and clothing must be considered. There are also medical and health issues to think about. Now is the time to ask ourselves, "How will these issues be dealt with during and after a horrendous event in which I might not have access to the conveniences to which I have grown accustomed?"

Furthermore, what will you do for your fuel, heating, lighting, water and sanitation needs, when the standard utility systems are not working and the fuel stations are not operating? Now is the time to seriously think about these things and prepare your emergency plans, plus come to an understanding about how you will provide for your heating and cooking needs.

Keep in mind that once the world around us changes, we may be in for the long haul. So plan ahead, rather than just looking at the short term. Look beyond just days, weeks and months. Become knowledgeable about what is needed to survive after a major disaster, then prepare as best you can for what you may be dealing with.

When it comes to mental preparedness, its better to be overprepared, than underprepared. Also, in the end, when put to the ultimate test, sometimes it is the simple, very inexpensive things which can make a major difference. Do your research and understand your basic needs.


Survival Skills

What will you do when you run out of food and the grocery stores have nothing to give you? What will you do if there is no meat, bread or other desirable food available to you? How will you survive? What will you eat? Do you know anything about wild edibles? Do you know which things are safe to eat and which are not? And, where will you get safe drinking water?

If there is no wholesome food available, do you have experience going without food for an extended period of time? Have you ever fasted for a number of days? Now could be a good time to learn your true capabilities, when you are not in the midst of a rather frantic, emergency situation when you may not be thinking clearly because of high stress.


Valuable Knowledge

After a megaquake event, it may be a long time before things get back to normal, if they ever do. Let us remember that places like Japan are still working to return normalcy to their regions of devastation, years after the devastating quake event.

Now is the time to become as self sufficient and knowledgeable as possible. It can help increase your chances of survival. Furthermore, if you are properly prepared and educated, you can be of help to your family and those less fortunate ones around you.


Community Spirit

By becoming prepared and working properly together, we can survive the most devastating events and continue onward.

A true spirit of community is actually beneficial to each and every person. Now is the time to begin working together and preparing for the future.





Getting Prepared

The button below accesses a page by the Oregon Emergency Management, Geologic Hazards Program. It is titled 'Preparing for the Big One'. This page gives some things to think about. It is at least a start.

The page declares: "You can't stop an earthquake, but you can prepare for one. Choices you make today may determine the ultimate outcome. Personal preparedness works!"


What will you do first when the massive shaking starts? What will you do when the shaking finally stops? The page linked above presents a lot of good information. But, there are things to think about beyond just what is on this page.


Things to Do

The abbreviated survival guide, linked below, gives a lot of information to consider regarding being prepared and what to do after a megaquake.

Look through the guide below and glean what information would be of benefit to you. And again, look at multiple sources and "compare notes" to come to your own conclusions on the best way to prepare in your particular situation.




Valuable Information

The buttons below access additional pages which include links relating to earthquake preparedness and things to consider.

Now is the time to obtain valuable information and knowledge. After a devastating earthquake may be far too late to start your education.


The links below access pages with information about preparing for earthquakes with the proper supplies and workable kits. Other emergency information is also included.




Quake & Prep Videos

The YouTube videos linked below provide a wealth of information about prepping for earthquakes and emergencies in general. Some could apply toward the Cascadia situation more than others.

By doing your own Google search on earthquake preparation, you may find many other helpful videos.







Things to Consider

After a very devastating earthquake, things will be much different in the Cascadia region. From the start, there will be people of many different mental states to deal with.

There is a potential that there may be roving gangs, who are looking for whatever they feel is important to them.

Ruthless gangs could be very dangerous to the average individual. Some thought should go into how to deal with situations of this nature, before an emergency situation occurs.

If a full-potential Cascadia earthquake scenario occurs and the devastation is immense, there may be hungary or viscious animals to deal with at some point, either singly or in packs. Again, how will you deal with these situations?

The things noted above are actually just a starting point. Once a major natural disaster occurs, cold, hard reality suddenly sets in as we realize that our world is no longer the same. We now are faced with many situations which may be totally outside of our acquired experience.





Important Lessons from Katrina and Elsewhere

It is time to consider how the government and FEMA responded in matters surrounding the Katrina natural disaster, plus other similar disasters.

The track record of FEMA and the government is important to consider, because things may be dealt with in a very similar manner after a massive Cascadia earthquake event. But, with one important difference.


On a Larger Scale

In Cascadia, things may be on a much larger and potentially much more dangerous or deadly scale. It has been stated that a full-blown Cascadia event will be the worst natural disaster which the United States has ever experienced.

Citizens truly need to learn from the Katrina debacle, plus from the forced disarmament of even law abiding citizens and the use of detainment camps, where victims appear to have been stripped of their Constitutional rights and treated like prisoners.


Mercenary Groups

During the Katrina disaster, extremely well-armed Private Military Companies (or mercenary groups) like the infamous Blackwater organization were brought in to take control of the situation.

For information about this situation, plus how things were handled in the midst of a major disaster, simply click on the buttons below.




Like in Iraq

It appears that at least some of these mercenary groups operated similar to how things were done in Iraq. Yes, even lawful citizens where under siege and unconstitutional acts were committed by those who had taken control.

It is said that a number of people were murdered in cold blood by these mercenaries. In major disaster situations like these, it appears relatively easy for mercenary groups to dispose of the bodies of any who are murdered.


Considering Cascadia

With the way things have been run by FEMA and the government in disaster situations, the same things as noted above could readily happen during a Cascadia event, but on a much larger and possibly more deadly scale.

It is said that a full-blown Cascadia event would be the worst disaster the U.S. has ever experienced. But, in all of this, there is even more to consider.


Gun Confiscation

After Katrina had devastated New Orleans, the vulnerable people, even law abiding citizens, were made much more vulnerable by having their guns forcefully confiscated.

It should be noted in the article linked below that "lawfully-owned firearms" were confiscated from citizens. Those with registered guns instantly lost their constitutional rights and their personal protection.

The article notes how these forced confiscations of guns from law abiding citizens were carried out. It states: "In many cases, it was from their homes at gunpoint." But, there is more to this story.

The article states: "There were no receipts given or anything else at a time when there was no 911 response and these citizens were out there on their own protecting their families."




Things to Consider

Besides the mercenary armies and law enforcement, after the forced gun confiscation from law abiding citizens, who now had the guns? Yes, the criminals and thugs who owned unregistered guns.

So, the disarmed, law abiding public was now made even much more vulnerable by also, now being at the mercy of the armed criminals and thugs.


A Government Agenda

It is well known that the government has been working hard to unconstitutionally disarm lawful U.S. citizens and make them as vulnerable as possible.

In the case of natural disasters, the record indicates that government agencies will use these situations to strongly further its other agendas. One of these agendas is to unconstitutionally disarm as many lawful U.S. citizens as possible.


Gone in an Instant

Even with so-called "safeguards" in place, these so-called "safeguards have been known to vanish at the whim of government.

In the wake of a large scale Cascadia megaquake event, gun confiscations, like those which occurred during other disasters, could very likely occur.

In other words, after a very devastating Cascadia event, it is possible that citizens could instantly lose all of their rights guaranteed under the U.S. Constitution and be forceably disarmed, possibly at gunpoint, and made completely vulnerable.


Permanently Gone

In the case of a very devastating, widespread, world-class Cascadia megaquake event, lawfully-owned, confiscated guns possibly may never make it back to their rightful owners. Some may even be smashed on the spot by "law enforcement," as it appears happened in some cases in the Katrina disaster.

For further information about gun confiscations and even gun destruction surrounding the Katrina disaster, simply click on the buttons below. Then consider that something like this could readily happen after a Cascadia event, even with so-called "safeguards" in place.




Detainment Camps

It is time to consider the track record of how FEMA actually "helps" displaced citizens from disaster regions. This is important so we can get some idea of what will be taking place after a massive Cascadia megaquake. As some have stated, the detention facilities where survivors are sent resemble prison camps.


Like Prison Camps ?

Concerning the statement about prison camps, at one of these facilities at Falls Creek in Oklahoma, which is noted in the information linked below, the "refuges" from Katrina were basically trapped out in the middle of nowhere.


According to FEMA, "the occupants of the camp cannot leave the camp for any reason. If they leave the camp they may never return."

For most people who are not trained or blessed with a good understanding of basic survival skills, they were probably scared and virtually trapped.


From Chuck Norris

For a bit more information on FEMA camps, let us, in the section which follows, turn to a page written by Chuck Norris about the conditions at a camp for victims left homeless by Hurricane Sandy, which is linked here and at the bottom of the section below and titled 'Horrors of FEMA."

As an apparent PR ploy, this place was called "Camp Freedom." But, it appears to have been something far different. It is said to have resembled "a prison camp."


Deceiving the Victims

It appears that the people were deceived and conned into going to the so-called "Camp Freedom." In a way, it is something like the initial Jews being deceived in Nazi Germany, as they were shipped to the gas chambers. Deception in government should not be tolerated.

In regards to the so-called "Camp Freedom," the victims were told that they were going to a place of "permanant structures" which "has washing machines and hot showers and steady electric." Instead, they were sent to a primitive tent city in the cold.




Lines at Toilets

At the so-called "Camp Freedom," noted in the section above, there were lines which had to wait for use of the outside portable toilets. The page states: "residents can't even use the toilet or shower without first presenting I.D."

Regarding the so-called "Camp Freedom," one victim declared: "They treat us like we're prisoners. It's bad to say, but we honestly feel like we're in a concentration camp."

People should truly read the article by Chuck Norris, linked in the section above, to see what all is really going on.


Keeping it Secret

In all of this, there is something to note even further in the Chuck Norris article, linked here and further above.

The article states: "According to the story, reporters aren't even allowed in the fenced complex." In the news media, the government "efforts" were being praised, so the general public would have to remain deceived or basically lied to.

It appears that the deceptive powers-that-be did not want the nation and world to see the deplorable conditions or the actual lines of victims waiting outside to use the portable toilets. But, there is more to this story.


Raping Taxpayers

While the victims in the camps are treated like animals, the bureaucratic tape put in place by FEMA allowed consulting firms to earn "as much as $180 an hour, just to navigate the paperwork --- all at taxpayers expense.

Is there some kind of clique going on here between FEMA and their buddy consultants? Is it a way for a select group of people or organizations to profit greatly off disaster?

Is it similar to the way that war is commonly used by an organized international group of individuals and "buddies" for amassing large profits, as they fund and supply both sides of the conflict and do their best to keep it going? Just something to consider.


FEMA Fraud

While victims of Hurricane Sandy are struggling to recover, the webpage linked below indicates that FEMA "purposefully modified insurance claims to avoid large payouts."

I wonder how much of the money fraudulently "saved" went into the pockets of FEMA officials or simply "disappeared?" But, there is more.

In just Hurricane Sandy, it appears that FEMA defrauded around 140,000 people. Possibly this is some of the change which Obama promised for the United States.




More FEMA Fraud ?

The page linked below shows that FEMA cannot verify where over $6 million dollars in fuel went, which was supposed to be used in Hurrican Sandy relief projects.

It should be noted that "$1.8 million of fuel" was delivered "to recipients outside the specified scope of work."

I wonder how much of it went into the fuel tanks of FEMA officials personal vehicles and possibly also those of their buddies?"




Do More Research !!!

The writer has highlighted only a few of the cases of apparent FEMA fraud and corruption. The reader who performs further Internet research about FEMA and disasters will find many more cases mentioned.

It appears that we are dealing with a very corrupt agency. Possibly part of the problem is that it may be un-Constitutional agency. Furthermore, it appears there is no true accountability in this corrupt organization.

After watching the way that FEMA has operated, there may be some who would call FEMA a criminal organization, or a nest of criminals. Anyway, do your research and see what conclusions you come to.


A Reality Check

It is time to get very real. Will they treat West Coast citizens any better after a very devastating Cascadia event? Some may have "wishful thinking," but, those things noted above are what citizens of the West Coast region have to look forward to in the event of a devastating Cascadia megaquake event.


In Your Hands

The writer felt that the issue presented in the sections above, regarding FEMA activities relating to natural disasters, needed to at least be brought before citizens of the Cascadia region.

What you do with this information is up to you. You can discount it, or you can research things further and then properly prepare for a future which could be totally different than things are now.


A Different Nation

Unfortunately, the information presented in the sections above, relating to FEMA and other agencies, appears to be the real situation we are now dealing with in the United States.

It appears that the questionable activities of FEMA and other agencies are the result of a calloused and inefficient government which may be riddled with corruption. It does not any longer appear to be a government "of the people, by the people, and for the people." So you possibly should prepare to fend for yourself in the next Cascadia event.

Those types of things which happened during the Katrina and Sandy debacles are very likely what citizens of the Pacific Northest will be dealing with in the wake of a devastating Cascadia event.


Further Information

For more information about what happened in the Hurricane Katrina disaster, the mercenary activity and other "official" lawlessness, plus the general chaos which occurred in the aftermath of this event, simply click on the buttons below.

This appears to now be real life, right here in the United States. Possibly you might as well get used to it, for this appears to be the "new normal."


ARTICLES



VIDEOS



For those who survive the initial, full-potential Cascadia event, plus any mercenary organizations which may be brought in, plus any other threats, there are now more things to consider in relation to long-term survival.





Alternative Fuels

Assuming that a person has survived the initial effects of the earthquake, there are other things which must now be considered. What will you do for heat and energy.

Alternative fuels are one option. These alternative systems may not have much appeal to many individuals right now. But, during an extended disaster, alternative fuels and energy systems can have great value.

When nothing else is available, you may be happy to have one of these systems.

The fuels can be made from many organic sources, using the proper equipment. These fuel source materials are readily available, even during an extreme natural disaster.

The links below access information about alternative fuels.







Biofuel Generators

Right now may be the proper time to learn about biofuels and become prepared. It is much easier to prepare, when the necessary components are easily obtainable.

In the aftermath of a major disaster, it may be much harder or virtually impossible to obtain the parts needed to produce an efficient biofuel generator.


--------------------


Below is a variety of information about biogas generators and how to build them.


Articles



There are many more articles and videos on the Internet about biogas generators. The rest of the research is up to you.





Wood Gas Generators

Some may laugh at this "rustic" technology at this time. But in the aftermath of a devastating Cascadia megaquake, you may be kicking yourself for not having one of these units.

Wood-gas generators have been of great value at various points in history. They have been used for heating purposes and for operating internal combustion engines of many types.

In the aftermath of a massive earthquake, there may be a considerable amount of wood debris lying around. This debris comes from things like destroyed wood structures and damaged trees.

Rather than having cleanup crews putting the extra work into disposing of a large volume of valuable wood debris in landfills, why not put it to good use in an environmentally-friendly, clean burning wood gas generator.

Clean burning fuel produced in wood gas generators can be used for operating heating systems and engines of various types.

The time to build a wood gas generator is before a major natural disaster occurs. After a disaster, you may not have the modern conveniences or tools available with which to build your unit.

Linked below is information about wood gas generators and their construction.


Articles




Videos



This is just a start. The rest of the research is up to you.





Fuel and Heat

Included within the pages of another of the author's sites is a technology which could help with your fuel and heating needs, especially during a serious emergency or major natural disaster.

The technology included in the other site, in essense, may give the potential for greatly extending your fuel supply. It may be worth your while to examine this site closely and use its information for your benefit.

To examine the author's other site, click on the Report Index button below and scan through the broad spectrum of information available.







Solar Energy

Solar energy has its advantages, when the power grid is not working. But, there are some things to consider in order to help avoid a damaged and useless system.

To withstand a Cascadia megaquake, a solar system may need built-in flexibility.

One option would be panels which are of a flexible nature, similar to these or these, or these.

For more rigid panels, a flexible mounting system could be built. An Internet search for such systems can turn up many results.

Any storage battery banks would need to be secured in a mounting system which allowed for flexibility. This would allow for less chance of the batteries being damaged during an extended, voilent earthquake.

One thing to remember is, solar only works when the sun is shining. Generally, at night, the panels produce no electricity. During the daytime, when it is cloudy, they produce less electricity.

All these things, and more, need to be taken into account when designing and building a workable, earthquake-resistant system for the Cascadia region.

One final thing will be noted about solar power. With a properly designed system, there is relatively little maintenance. There are no moving parts to wear out. These are things to consider when deciding on the best emergency power source to fill your needs.





Wind Power

Massive ground shaking could damage industrial size wind turbines, or cause them to fail catastrophically. So, smaller may be better in Cascadia.

The best design of turbine (whether vertical or horizontal axis, or other) and blade configuration may be worth more thought in the Cascadia region.

To increase overall system power output, a number of smaller wind turbines could be wired together in parallel. Check the Internet for information about how this is done.

In the case of wind turbines, as with solar power, there will need to be some form of earthquake resistant battery bank.

An Internet search may provide all the information necessary to design and build an earthquake resistant, wind power system for the Cascadia region.

When it comes to deciding whether to go solar or wind, or things to consider when going with wind power, the webpage linked here gives some good information.





The Long Term

There are people who feel they are safe during an emergency, because they have a gun. But, there are things to consider.

During an extended time of hardship and/or anarchy, how long will your bullets last? Then again, when your gun goes "BANG," will it draw others to you. will they try to take, by force, the animal which you just shot for your own food? Truly, how long will your bullets last?

It is time to get realistic. In unfavorable conditions, what are you going to eat? If there is no standard food available, what are you going to do? Do you have the knowledge and experience which can allow you to go without food for an extended period of time? Are you able to fast?





An Invitation and Contact Info

Would you like to contact the author with questions or comments about this webpage? Or, do you have any information which may be of value to the author or this site?

Then, feel free to contact him via the method shown in the page accessed by the button below.

Thank you.




Welcome Involvement

Do you appreciate the research and work which has gone into this site? Has it been informative and helpful to you? In return, would you like to help the researcher in some way which would help get the message out better?

So far, the research and site building has been "shouldered" by the writer (David). The same is true for advertising this information via Cascadia Earthquake T-shirts, as David is out and about and answering people's questions.

If you would like to donate a financial gift towards getting the message out better, that would be greatly appreciated.

Thank you for your support and generosity.


Speaking to People

The writer could possibly be available to speak to individuals or small groups about information presented in this site. Contact the writer to see how that can be made to happen.


Home Base

Regarding home base: If you didn't catch it earlier, the writer lives by Vancouver, Washington, right on the northeast side. Yes, he lives directly in the middle of the Cascadia hazard zone. Now you know why he has an interest in what Cascadia can potentially do in the times ahead.





The Bug Out Bag

It is best to be prepared for emergency situations at all times, especially in the Cascadia region. No one likes the feeling of being taken totally by surprise and completely unprepared for survival in an emergency situation. So, it is time to consider "Bug Out Bags."


Basic Necessities

Bug Out Bags contain the basic necessities which can help toward long term survival. To survive, there are generally four things which you need --- air, shelter, water and food.(1)

Air is generally available, unless there is some hazardous element involved. For hazardous elements, you may need some type of breathing or filtering apparatus. The main components of the bug out bag should help with acquiring shelter, water and food. Sanitation issues should also be considered.


Considering Skills

It is time to consider what needs to go into a good Bug Out Bag. A lot may depend on your basic survival skills and knowledge level.

If you already know how to "live off the land," you could pack less or even no food in your bug out bag. If you are knowledgeable and skilled in wild edibles, you are far ahead of the crowd.

If you have experience with fasting (without food) for extended periods of time, you are really ahead of the curve. Not having to always be concerned about food can take a lot of stress out of an already stressful situation.


Individual Needs

The contents of bug out bags should be tailored to individual needs. Some have medical issues which are extremely important to consider. There are also many other factors which should be considered when assembling a workable bag.


Linked Information

In an attempt to make things easier for everyone, the buttons below access pages about Bug Out Bag contents.

Some of the linked info applies to hard core survivalists, but all of these pages have tidbits of information which are good for surviving in the aftermath of a Cascadia megaquake event.

ARTICLES



VIDEOS



Wise Considerations

In all of this, there is something to consider. If Cascadia were to dish out its worst, it may end up being a hard core survival situation. Do not be left unprepared.

There is an applicable saying for this situation. It goes something like this: "Prepare for the worst, and if it does not happen, be pleasantly surprised."


Further Information

The information linked via the buttons above is a good starting point for becoming familiar with bug out bags and their contents.

For those desiring further information, just do a Google search for "bug out bag." You will find there are thousands of results to look at.

For those desiring a whole lot more information when doing their Google search, simply pick on the "Videos" option at the top of the Google page.





Credibility Issue

It is time to take a much closer look at the scientific community. What the writer has found in his research could potentially fill books.

It is time to consider the issue of unbiased credibility among at least a certain segment of the professional community in the Cascadia region, and yes, potentially worldwide.

It is time to consider how certain souces of research funding may have a major effect on the final outcome of findings in important reports or studies. Yes, it can be somewhat like: "If you pay us the money, we will tell the public whatever you want us to say, and make the data say whatever you like."


Credibility Cascadia

Before the credibility issue is considered further, there is one thing to make completely clear.

The coming of a Cascadia megaquake is not someone's horrid joke. The geologic evidence in the region and the story "written" clearly in the rocks of the earth, plus the massive earthquakes occurring around the Pacific Rim, do point to the coming event.

With that said, let us return to the issue of credibility. Let us consider an event in past history to clearly make a point. Let us observe how certain groups will "fudge" the data, to their financial benefit.


1872 Washington Earthquake

Back in 1872, one of Washington's largest earthquakes took place. The article linked below shows that the powerful quake "rattled seven states and provinces." It declares: "It was felt from Montana and British Columbia down into Oregon and Northern California."


The article above declares: "In the 1970s, legions of consultants employed by utilities with nuclear ambitions attempted to pin down the location of the quake.
        "One consortium wanted to build three reactors at Hanford, while another proposed a pair on the Skagit River near Sedro-Woolley. Neither project wanted the 1872 quake in its back yard.
        "The result was a series of reports that lobbed the epicenter back and forth across the Cascades like a tennis ball. One Seattle politico dubbed it "the earthquake that wouldn't stay put." That publication is linked below.



From the information above, it is very clear that the nuclear industry does not want it to be proven that epicenters for powerful past earthquakes were anywhere near their region, for permitting purposes. Powerful "players" in the nuclear industry appear to want a naive public to believe that their vulnerable and dangerous nuclear facilities are located in "safe" zones.

--------------------

Hanford Nuclear

The nuclear industry appears to have a strong desire, and a motive, for having the records show that epicenters for past Cascadia megaquakes were as far away as possible from their projects, especially from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

Is it any surprise that virtually all studies seem to indicate that the epicenters for Cascadia megaquakes are located at the so-called subduction zone, way offshore, rather that far inland, relatively close to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor?

If Hanford Nuclear Reservation were not located in the region, there might be a better chance that the general public could be presented with a more accurate picture about what is happening, geologically, in the Cascadia region.

If Hanford Nuclear Reservation were not located in the region, possibly the general public may be given a better picture of the seismic hazards facing them in the region of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.

In the aftermath of a full-potential Cascadia megaquake, with epicenters located along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, we may realize that an M9.0 or M9.2 quake was just somebody's wishful thinking (or outright deception).

The magnitude of devastation and loss of life throughout the Cascadia region could be utterly numbing. What will be, will be. Those who take things seriously and prepare properly, may have a better chance at long-term survival.

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The Money Trail

The professionals have, at times, biased their reports for the benefit of those who hire them, or those who directly or indirectly fund their projects. For that reason, their information might not always be accurate or reliable. Unfortunately, this problem seems to be woven through our whole society.


Peer Pressure and the Rigging of "Science"

The research paper, linked here, on page 3 of 14, tends to indicate that if a scientist desires to research something outside of the commonly accepted views of his peers, (or possibly outside what the powers-that-be want the general public to believe or know), he "risks not only his professional reputation, but also any chance of getting research funds."

The webpages linked below are just some of the examples which give further evidence of how the scientific community is manipulated or gives fraudulent findings, for one reason or another. The result of this constant manipulation is, for the most part, false sciences which are riddled with many deceptions.







Yes, it appears that research and the findings of the scientific research community, to a large degree, can be controlled and manipulated by those who have the money. It appears the same situation occurs with the news media, as noted below.

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News Media -
Intellectual Prostitutes

The following has been found in books from years past, plus now may be found in many Internet sources.

There was a man named John Swinden, who was head of the New York Times. In 1953, he was asked to toast an independent press, at a National Press Club meeting. The following is what he allegedly declared.

"There is no such thing at this date of the world's history in America as an independent press. You know it, and I know it.
        "There is not one of you who dares to write his honest opinion, and if you did, you know beforehand it would never appear in print.
        "I am paid weekly for keeping my honest opinion out of the paper. Others of you are paid similar salaries for similar things. and any of you who would be so foolish as to write honest opinions would be out on the streets looking for another job.
        "If I allow my honest opinions to appear in one issue of my paper, before 24 hours, my occupation would be gone.
        "The business of the journalist is to destroy the truth, to lie outright, to pervert, to vilify, to fawn at the feet of Mammon and to sell his country and his race for his daily bread. You know it, and I know it, and what folly is this toasting an independent press?
        "We are the tools and the vassals of rich men behind the scenes. We are the jumping jacks. They pull the strings, and we dance. Our talents, our possibilities and our lives are all the property of other men. We are intellectual prostitutes."

The above is quite a statement. It appears we may be dealing with a similar situation today.

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News Media and
Cascadia Truth

If the news media really told it like it is, there is a potential that large money interests and investors in the Cascadia region might not appreciate it.

If the general public in Cascadia was told by the media the full earthquake hazard which they are facing, people might start moving out of this area. A certain portion of the skilled workforce might also go elsewhere. Others might not want to move into the Cascadia region.

If the Cascadia region became an undesirable place to live, property values could potentially drop. If Cascadia became an undesirable travel destination, some businesses might not be happy because of reduced income.

It all comes down to money. Those who desire "business as usual" for their financial benefit do not want their income to be reduced in any manner. So, the public may never be told the full truth about what is known about the geology beneath, plus the full magnitude of the devastating earthquake hazard in Cascadia.

Fortunately, there are still those non-funded independent individuals which will research deeply and provide the truth, no matter what the cost. The author is only one person in that group of individuals.





Considering Truth

The main purpose of this document is to examine a more realistic picture for the next Cascadia event, plus coming large earthquakes in general. This is important so that people can better prepare themselves for those things which are now coming upon this earth.

Let us begin to examine how large and devastating earthquakes fit into the picture of world history, both now and as we approach what is called the end of the world. Let us be ready to consider genuine truth and insight, wherever it is found.


Toward the End

To begin this discussion, let us consider what has been foretold over two thousand years ago, about great earthquakes. How do these devastating earthquakes fit into the things which are spoken about the end of the world?

In regards to those things which have been foretold, it is written:

And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, "Tell us, when shall these things be? And what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?"
      And Jesus answered and said unto them, "Take heed that no man deceive you. For many shall come in my name, saying, 'I am Christ;' and shall deceive many. And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.
      "For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places. All these are the beginning of sorrows."
(KJV - Matthew 24:3-8)


A Certain Order

The above words speak initially of wars and rumors of wars. They then speak of famines and pestilences, which are things we now see upon this earth. And then it speaks clearly of "earthquakes in divers places."

These "earthquakes in divers places" are things which we are now also seeing at an increasing rate. The earth is now experiencing large earthquakes at double the rate experienced in the previous century.

In the Scripture noted above, it is then written: "All these are the beginning of sorrows." What is this sorrow all about?

In answer, let another question be asked. Does widespread destruction, serious injuries, maimings and death, on a large scale, bring sorrow upon this earth?


More Detail

Another passage adds more detail and clarity to the above train of events. It is written:

"But when ye shall hear of wars and commotions, be not terrified: for these things must first come to pass; but the end is not by and by."
      Then said he unto them, "Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven."
(KJV - Luke 21:9-11)

Note that it speaks of great earthquakes in divers places. But, once again, there is more detail given. It speaks of famines and pestilences.

It appears that famines and pestilences, plus great earthquakes, may all be happening at the same time upon this earth, as it now is.

Knowing what we see upon this earth, wars may also be mixed in with all these events which bring sorrows. And why is all of this happening?

It is happening because humanity is steadily rejecting the Most High God of Heaven and his true ways, while going their own wicked way.


Famines, 21st Century

The links below provide information about famine in the 21st century. Yes, there may actually be more famine in our world today than we like to admit. And, things may not be getting better.




Famine, United States

The links below tell a story about famine which is said to have occurred in the United States during the financial Depression of the 1930s. Yes, this is a controversial issue which many would rather downplay.

Whether we believe what is said or not, Americans should not be so foolish as to utterly reject the possibilites of famine in the United States. Now for a look at the linked information.


At this point, there is something important to note. What has happened before in this world can readily happen again, even in the United States. But there is more to the story.

If the conditions are right, things could readily be much worse in the U.S. than that which happened in the 1930s. Part of it also depends on how much intentional manipulation is done by the various powers that be.


Words of Wisdom

Regarding manipulation and what could happen in the United States, let us not neglect the following words of wisdom from that early statesman and author, Edmund Burke:

"There is no safety for honest men except by believing all possible evil of evil men."

The words above are from a very knowledgeable man who knew his history well. He knew about the bloody Crusades and the tortuous and brutal Inquisitions. He also knew very well about a specific "religious" order which had been kicked out of many countries and states in earlier times because of their deceptive, highly subversive and less than stellar activities.

It should be noted that this particular, deceptive order is still working strong in our world. It also appears to have a lot of control over how things are handled in the United States today, even in the case of natural disasters.

A word to the wise is sufficient...


Hunger, United States

Hunger in the United States is a very real, growing problem. The pages below speak about hunger, right now, every day, in the United States. These pages also speak about poverty.

In many cases, these problems are linked to a manipulated economy and other manipulated factors.

From the looks of it, things are not going to be greatly improving in the foreseeable future.




Observations

In all of this, there is something very important to note.

As things steadily grow worse in the United States for many people, it appears that those who are well off, especially "the elite," simply become more calloused towards their fellow humans who are not faring so well.

It should be noted that this truly is a sign of the times. It shows where we are truly at in the history of this failing world.


Pestilences

In the Scripture noted further above, it spoke of famines and pestilences as we near the end of the world.

The links below provide some information about pestilences in our world today.

Whether or not the new pestilences were created in a eugenics laboratory may never be known, at least not while we are still here upon this earth.

Once again, the 'Words of Wisdom' from Edmund Burke, noted further above, should be considered.




Great Signs

The passage of Scripture further above declared that "great earthquakes shall be in divers places..." Also note that "fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven."


More Than Double

Regarding great earthquakes, the article linked here declares: "Since December 2004 there have been no less than 18 quakes of Mw8.0 or greater - a rate of more than twice that seen from 1900 to mid-2004."

The article linked above also states: "Hundreds of thousands of lives have been lost and massive damage has resulted from these great earthquakes."


In Diverse Places

In more recent times, not only have the extremely strong earthquakes been coming at a faster rate, but there have been unusual earthquakes and earthquake swarms in a number of places around the world.

The buttons below access information about just a few of these unusual earthquakes and earthquake swarms which are showing up, as the Holy Bible states, in diverse places.

There is a potential, in certain cases, that earthquake swarms can signal bigger things to come.




Signs in the Heavens

The passage of Scripture, further above, also speaks of "fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven."


Fireballs & Exploding

What about all the fireballs, and especially the exploding ones, in more recent times? Could these be a part of the "fearful sights and great signs...from heaven?"

As these fireballs are considered, there are some things to think about. In most cases, these fireballs are the result of space rocks entering the earth's atmosphere. So, what's the point?

In most cases, these incoming space objects were undetected before their arrival. This lack of detection means that if a space object were on a collision course with a populated area, people may not know until the event is happening around them.

With the above thoughts in mind, links to information about fireballs now follows:

(Atlantic-2016), (2)
(Canada-Spain-2016)
(OK, Hungary, Spain-'16)
(Florida, USA-2015), (2)
(PA, USA-2015), (2)
(Romania-2015), (2)
(New Zealand-2015), (2)
(California, USA-2015)
(Australia-2015)
(India-2015), (2)
(Texas, USA-2014)
(USA-Canada-2014), (2)
(SD, USA-2014)
(Arizona, USA-2014)
(Canada-2014), (2), (3)
(Russia-2014)
(4 events-USA-2014)
(East Coast USA-2013)
(Argentina-2013)
(New Mexico, USA-2013)
(Quebec-2013)
(Spain-2013)
(CA, USA-2013), (2)
(Ohio, USA-2013)
(Cuba-2013), (2), (3)
(Nevada, USA-2012)
(Britain-2010)
(Utah, USA-2009)

(The Globe-2013)

What about the fireball which exploded over Russia in 2013, causing panic, damage and injuries?
(link), (2), (3), (4)


Time of Sorrows

We see various wars in our day, plus hear rumors about the possibility of even more wars. Then there are those devastating famines in certain areas of our world.

The rise in deadly diseases is causing serious concern in our day. We are also seeing the rise of antibiotic resistant diseases. Yes, we see the steady rise of various pestilences coming on our world.

There has been a rise in deadly and devastating earthquakes, as they come at a faster rate. The tsunamis, also, have taken hundreds of thousands of lives.

To add to the signs already noted above, there have been many signs in the heavens. There have been numerous fireballs, even exploding ones which have caused panic.

Yes, the signs are here in our day. Just take a look around you. Take a look at what is happening in the whole world. Look at terrorism and destruction in many places. Look at the airliners which are crashing and lives which are being lost. Look at the famine and starvation. Yes, there is now much sorrow in our world.

Possibly we have entered the time of sorrows, which was spoken about over two thousand years ago. Let us note that this time of sorrows occurs shortly before the end of the world.

There is a strong possibility that the next Cascadia event, with the death and destruction resulting from it, may be just another part of the time of sorrows.


More Signs

Jesus Christ gave more signs showing how things would be just before the time of His return, and the time of the end of the world. These signs are made clear in the passages of Scripture shown below.


Days of Noah and Lot

The passages of Scripture which follow show certain traits which will become prevalent amongst humanity, just before the sudden return of Jesus Christ and the end of the world.

It is written:

"And as it was in the days of Noe [Noah], so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noe [Noah] entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all.
      Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded; but the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all.
      Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed."
(KJV - Luke 17:26-30)


Prior to the Flood

What was it like in the days of Noah? This information may help us to obtain a better understanding of where humanity stands in the history of the world?

It is written:

"The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence. And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
      "And God said unto Noah, 'The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.'"
(KJV - Genesis 6:11-13)


Filled with Violence

Not only is there violence by humans against humans, but the Scriptures also look at other forms of violence.

It is written:

"If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of judgment and justice in a province, marvel not at the matter: for he that is higher than the highest regardeth; and there be higher than they."
(KJV - Ecclesiastes 5:8)

Yes, violence on this earth takes many forms. As shown above, there is "violent perverting of judgment and justice."

When placed in the light of Scripture, it becomes obvious that there is much violence spread across the face of the earth in our day.


Rejection of True God

The passage of Scripture below indicates the general attitude of the populace in the days of Noah: in the times before the Flood and the destruction of the first world.

It is written: "Hast thou marked the old way which wicked men have trodden, which were cut down out of time, whose foundation was overflown with a flood: which said unto God, 'Depart from us:' and what can the Almighty do for them?"
(KJV - Job 22:15-17)

In the days of Noah, before the Flood, generally, the people did not want anything to do with the true God or His ways. They were arrogantly questioning what the Almighty God could do for them, especially since their heart was utterly set on taking a hedonistic path into utter wickedness.

The general attitude of humanity in the so-called civilized world reminds the writer of a popular song he has heard in past times. A video of that song being "ministered" is linked here. For those who cannot hear, take a look at the words which are linked here.

The spirit within the "ministers" speaks loudly, and resonates with so many. And yes, it truly is a one-way trip --- to eternal perdition.


Another Sign

In our day, the general attitude of the people appears to be "as it was in the days of Noe [Noah]." But there is another sign shown in the passage of Scripture presented further above.

It states: "Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot..."

At this point, it may be very enlightening to consider what things were like in the days of Lot. What were people like in the area where Lot resided, around the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah? What were they doing, which so displeased God that it brought about their utter destruction by a powerful act of God?


Homosexuality

Yes, homosexuality was popular in Sodom. And what is becoming very popular in our world today?


All the Signs

Let us now consider all the signs spoken of in the Scriptures, which lead up to the return of Jesus Christ and the utter end and destruction of the world.

There are wars and rumors of wars. There are serious famines and pestilences upon our earth. There are deadly and devastating earthquakes in diverse places, which are coming at more than twice the rate of the previous century.

There are signs in the heavens: fireballs, even exploding ones. It is a time of many sorrows. There is much violence across the face of the earth, plus many ruined lives.

The general rejection of God and His true ways is prevalent in our day, just as it was in the days of Noah. Homosexuality is becoming very popular in our day, just as it was in the days of Lot.

It is obvious that all the signs are present in our day, which indicate the nearness of the return of Christ and the utter end of the world.


An Additional Sign

Considering the widespread rejection of the God of Heaven and His true ways, plus the rejection of His Christ, along with all the evil which is occurring on this earth, there is another passage of Scripture which fits into this picture. It declares the following:

"When the wicked spring as the grass, and when all the workers of iniquity do flourish; it is that they shall be destroyed for ever..."
(KJV - Psalm 92:7)

When considering this sign, it does appear that the end of the world may be relatively near.


Over 2,000 Years Ago

Let us again consider that the general combination of things which are occurring in our world today were foretold over two thousand years ago by Jesus Christ.

It truly does appear that we have entered into that time of many sorrows. The writer does wish you well in the times ahead.


Deadliest Quake

A page linked below, from History.com, is titled 'The Deadliest Earthquake Ever Recorded.' This quake happened in China in the year 1556 A.D. In this great earthquake, approximately 830,000 people are said to have lost their lives.

There are other things for people in the Cascadia region to consider about this earlier quake. Why? Because what has happened before upon this earth can happen again, plus even greater things can potentially take place.

The records declare that this devastating quake in 1556 A.D. leveled mountains. Now, it generally takes some incredible shaking to level mountains. The linked page states further about "floods, [and] fires that burned for days."

This short examination would not be complete without mentioning at least one more thing from the page. This quake produced "a drastically altered landscape." Can the same thing happen throughout the Cascadia region, should a full-potential Cascadia quake event occur?

And, as another note, the page declares: "The annals estimated that some counties had lost about 60 percent of their population." So, really, do we have any guarantee that the Cascadia region will be spared such a fate, should things break loose in the worst way?


As a further note, the page above indicates that the deadly 1556 A.D. quake had a magnitude somewhere between 8.0 and 8.3.

For Cascadia, it appears the quake could have a magnitude of 9.0 or greater. This would mean ten-times the ground motion of the 1556 quake, plus a quake which is 32 times stronger, in the energy released.

Considering the projected strength for a full-potential Cascadia quake event, just how many mountains could potentially be shaken down in such an event?

We may have to wait a little for the answer, for only time will allow us to obtain the full and true answer to this question.


Coming Earthquakes

The Scriptures speak of exceedingly mighty and destructive earthquakes before the coming "end of the world" occurs. Let us look at a few examples.

It is written: "And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great.
      "And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon
[said to be Rome] came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath.
      "And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found
."
(KJV - Revelation 16:18-20)

As a result of the mighty and great earthquake noted above, why will not the mountains be found? In answer, let us note what was stated in the section above about the 1556 A.D. China quake. Let us consider thing further, with the following questions.

Could the mountains not be found (or virtually disappear), once again, as the result of the intensity of the great shaking during this mighty quake? Once again, could the mountains utterly be shaken down?

In answer to the above questions, consider the following.

The Scripture declares that "Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low..."
(KJV - Luke 3:5)

Could "every valley...be filled" by the debris from the mountains and hills which are shaken down? In other words, will the surface of the landmasses be generally leveled during this massive quake?

Indeed, how mighty will be this quake!

And again, it is written:

"And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made low: and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day. And the idols he shall utterly abolish.
      "And they shall go into the holes of the rocks, and into the caves of the earth, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth.
      "In that day a man shall cast his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made each one for himself to worship, to the moles and to the bats; to go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the tops of the ragged rocks, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty, when he ariseth to shake terribly the earth.
      "Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his nostrils: for wherein is he to be accounted of?
"
(KJV - Isaiah 2:17-22)


Western North America

From an examination of the geology in western North American, it appears that Cascadia has the potential for unleashing an exceedingly mighty and destructive earthquake. It appears to have the potential for setting a new world record in earthquake magnitude and overall destruction.

In Cascadia, a highly "locked" geologic situation is being dealt with. It appears that the continental landmass overrode the ancient oceanic rift system during its westward travel. It is bridging the rift. That is why things are "locked."

If Cascadia releases its full seismic potential, the death toll and destruction may be far above that predicted by the experts.

A full-potential Cascadia event could be utterly humbling to the experts of our day. For those experts who survive the quake, it could bring them to a whole new paradigm shift in thinking about this earth and its true seismic capabilities.


Regarding the End

For additional insight into the end of the world and events leading up to it, the button below accesses the beginning of a more detailed series of reports.


NOTE:
Unfortunately, the website for the page linked above was eliminated from the Internet and is permanently out of commission. Another website may have to be set up for this extensive document, as the author has the extra time. Sorry.






Important Lesson from History

There is an important piece of U.S. history which should be considered in relation to the Cascadia region and the potential for a deadly and devastating megaquake, and the type of information which is commonly being given to the general pulbic. There is a very important lesson to learn from this piece of U.S. history.

The following information comes from a Wikipedia entry titled 'San Francisco plague of 1900-04.' (link)

The entry notes that this epidemic of bubonic plague "was the first plague epidemic in the continental United States."

And now for an important lesson for all of us to consider, and possibly how the principle involved may now relate to the Cascadia region.

The Wikipedia entry states the following:

"The epidemic was recognized by medical authorities in March 1900, but its existence was denied for more than two years by Henry Gage, the Governor of California. His denial was based on business reasons: the wish to keep the reputations of San Francisco and California clean and to prevent the loss of revenue from trade stopped by quarantine."

So, here is our lesson from history. A very serious and deadly problem was recognized, but the government lied about the very existence of this serious and deadly problem for a considerable period of time, for economic reasons. The writer has reason to believe that a similar situation exists in the Cascadia region.

There is reason for the writer to believe that the initial epicenters for the next, full-potential Cascadia megaquake event may be relatively close to the Interstate 5 freeway corridor, rather than far offshore in the Pacific Ocean at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone.

There is reason for the writer to believe that the next, full-potential Cascadia megaquake event may be far more deadly and devastating than the experts are predicting. Because of the potential location for the initial epicenters, the death toll and devastation may be utterly numbing.

There is reason to believe that, for economic reasons, the powers that be will never divulge to the general public the true potential for death and devastation which exists from the next full-potential Cascadia event.

If the full potential for death and devastation were reported, possibly the powers that be are afraid that the workforce may begin moving out of the Cascadia region. That could have an effect on the economy.

If the full potential for death and devastation were reported, possibly the powers that be are afraid that investors may not invest in businesses and projects in the Cascadia region. This, also, could have an effect on the economy.

If the full potential for death and devastation were reported, possibly the powers that be are afraid that tourism could be reduced, for most people would possibly prefer not to be involved with a massive and deadly megaquake. And again, this could have an effect on the economy.

If the full potential for devastation were reported, possibly property in the Cascadia region would not be as desirable. As a result, property values could be reduced. Possibly less tax money would be collected in the region, and, with good reason, the government may not want this to happen.

Once again, possibly for money reasons, the full truth about what is being dealth with in the Cascadia region is not being told to the public. Unfortunately, it appears that to some, money may be more important than human lives. To some, humanity may be just an expendable commodity, only to be used for making money.

In relation to this, it is written: "For the love of money is the root of all evil..." 1 Timothy 6:10

It is evil to withhold vital information from the public, which information could help them to properly prepare for, or to fully avoid, a potentially deadly and devastating situation.






Current Expectations for a Cascadia Mega-Quake

The "Ultimate Guide" to the coming Cascadia Mega-Quake, for the Average Citizen



A documented report by:  David E. Sakrisson -- Independent Researcher and Reporter
"Presenting the findings of my research, even if the picture is not pretty."

Copyright © 2014-2017  by  David E. Sakrisson
All Rights Reserved



Latest additions on:  Sunday, October 15, 2017 - 10:05am PDT
****** To have access to recent updates and additions, click on your browser's "Refresh" button prior to reading each time. ******

The Story of Earthquake Gold is now included in this document, in the right-side margin information, at this level.

At page bottom is convenient INDEX FOR SECTION-TITLES (Link to Index), with direct links to sections on this page.
This report is a non-funded work in progress. Donations toward this research and webpage would be gladly accepted and greatly appreciated.

NOTE #1: For those wanting to know more about Cascadia and what appears to be the coming world-class earthquake, this report must be completely and thoroughly read and studied. For the best results, this report must be read more than one time. This must be done in order to geologically "connect the dots" and obtain a more accurate picture of that which is truly being presented by this report. Without an accurate picture of the information which is being presented, in the manner in which the writer has intended the picture to be seen, this report will not do you much good.

NOTE #2: Over time, this report has become rather large. There is much information which truly can be of benefit to the public, regarding a massive Cascadia event. But, the large size of this page does create a problem. Things change, sometimes rapidly, on the Internet and there are times when links no longer work. It may also be found that, because of changed subject matter at other sites, some links no longer contain relevant information. If you should run into this type of situation in this report, please notify the writer of this problem via email. In the end, it will be helping everyone, even yourself. Thank you for your courtesy.





GETTING  STARTED



LOOKING  AT  THE  PAST

Things from the past can sometimes help us to understand what can be expected in the future. This may be very true, when looking at the geologic record in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and in the floor of the nearby ocean, plus in British Columbia, Canada --- in that region which is commonly referred to as "Cascadia."

For more than two decades, scientists have been talking about a massive earthquake in the past, which occurred in the Cascadia region. They know about this quake, plus the general history of some of the other great earthquakes in this region, by examining the geologic record clearly presented in the ground.

Another indicator of great Cascadia quakes in the past are the sunken or ghost forests found especially in the coastal regions. The video and pages linked below give some indication of the seismic past in Cascadia. They also give much food for thought, as we consider the seismic event which we are now facing --- possibly even in the very near future.

There is a truth which goes something like this: What has happened in the past can also happen once again, possibly sooner than we realize. Furthermore, there is also the chance that things can happen on even a much larger scale than is commonly believed. With that thought in mind, check out the information on ghost forests, linked below.




There is something to note about these various drowned and ghost forests from the past. Some are buried deeper than others. It appears that some of these forests may have sunk during various earlier, great earthquakes in the region. To the writer, it also appears that certain coastal areas may have sunk more than others, during these massive quakes. This may be something to keep in mind, as we now face the next Cascadia seismic event.




WATCHING  MOVEMENT  IN  CASCADIA

As we begin to consider things relating to a great earthquake in the Cascadia region, it is of value to note where things are already moving --- to a degree --- and various small quakes are steadily being produced. It is also of value to note where the highest densities of these quakes are located, for this may indicate a zone or zones of weakness which the coming Cascadia seismic event could exploit.

The set of links, below, access pages which give information on recent earthquakes --- most of them being very small, almost imperceptible. Nevertheless, these numerous tiny quakes may have a story to tell about what is soon coming. Keep these in mind, as we continue into a presentation about Cascadia.

MyNorthwest.com Earthquake Tracker (recent): http://mynorthwest.com/category/earthquake_tracker/. Keep an eye on patterns over time.
Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (recent): http://www.pnsn.org/. Another site on which to watch those recent earthquake patterns.
EarthquakeTrack.com (recent): http://earthquaketrack.com/v/pnw/recent. The pattern of little quakes, over time, do begin to tell a story.
OregonLive.com (last 30 days): http://projects.oregonlive.com/maps/earthquakes/. Quakes in Washington, Oregon, California and beyond.
VolcanoDiscovery.com (last 7 days): https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/earthquakes/washington.html. Another source for quake information.





LOOKING  AT  QUAKE  SWARMS

The pages linked below present information on quake swarms. Yes, these are swarms of tiny quakes in specific locations. These swarms also add to the story of what is happening in the Cascadia region. They may also mark a zone of weakness which can be exploited, once things really begin to move or break loose.

http://temblor.net/earthquake-insights/a-seismic-swarm-beneath-the-seattle-fault-4117/. Seismic swarm...Seattle Fault, from May 21, 2017.
https://pnsn.org/blog/2017/05/11/earthquake-swarm-ne-of-bremerton. Earthquake swarm NE of Bremerton, from May 11, 2017.
http://www.king5.com/news/local/seismologists-studying-small-tremors-deep-beneath-puget-sound/416470974. Location of swarms, March 1, 2017.
http://q13fox.com/2016/01/26/scientists-tracking-thousands-of-tiny-tremors-across-pacific-northwest/. Location of swarms, from January 26, 2016.
http://outdoor-society.com/2000-small-earthquakes-have-hit-the-pacific-northwest-since-new-years-day/. Location of swarms, from January 5, 2016.
http://nwpr.org/post/silent-earthquakes-ripple-under-cascadia. Location of swarms, from October 5, 2012. Note also occurrences in Oregon.
http://tunk.ess.washington.edu/REALTIME/. Realtime Tremor Map. Check out that pattern. It generally happens near the Interstate-5 corridor.


Let us now move onward, as we begin to examine earthquakes in general, plus what is happening in Cascadia. This report contains a lot of --- plus a variety of --- information. Let this information sink into your mind, as the picture begins to form about what can logically be expected in the days ahead.




POTENTIAL  SINKING,  BEFORE  "THE  BIG  ONE"



ALONG  THE  COAST

According to a page from Berkeley.edu, linked below, geologic research indicates that "some massive earthquakes...are preceded by slight sinking along nearby coastlines two to five years before the rupture." The page notes further that "areas such as those ringing the Pacific Rim could be on the lookout for subsidence as a warning of possible future megathrust quakes..."


The page linked above states: "One marsh in Alaska apparently sank about half a foot starting perhaps 15 years before the devastating 1964 Alaska quake, which measured 9.2 on the Richter scale and generated a tsunami that killed dozens of people along the Pacific coast." But, there is more to this story.

The page continues: "Similarly, a core from a marsh in Oregon showed evidence of four large quakes over the past 3,000 years, each preceded by subsidence." At this point, there are some questions. Will the coming Cascadia mega-quake also be preceded by subsidence in the coastal regions? Will scientists and the general media interpret this subsidence as sea level rising caused by climate change, instead of what it actually is?




EVEN  IN  NEW  ZEALAND

A page linked below, about the 2016 New Zealand earthquake, states: "Before last week's massive earthquake caused a violent uplift along the Kaikoura coastline, that part of the country was actually sinking, albeit very gradually."


So, it appears that this sinking phenomenon in coastal regions is not uncommon, prior to massive earthquakes. This slow subsidence is possibly something which should be watched for in the Cascadia region.




BASIC  INFO  RELATING  TO  EARTHQUAKES



COMPARING  EARTHQUAKES

At this point in history, the largest recorded earthquake in modern times was the Chile quake of 1960. It had a magnitude of 9.5. With this information as a starting point for a discussion on the coming Cascadia earthquake event, let us begin to compare the sizes or magnitudes of earthquakes and the energy released or the actual strength of these various earthquakes.

The first link below accesses the USGS earthquake calculator. By using this calculator and the information presented in the second link, we find that an M9.0 quake is 10 times bigger in magnitude on a seismogram than is an M8.0 quake. This means that an M9.0 earthquake "produces 10 times more ground motion"(1) than does an M8.0 quake. But, there is actually more to consider here. Yes, there is more to the story about what people will truly be experiencing in real life during earthquakes.

The second linked USGS page declares: "The magnitude scale is really comparing amplitudes of waves on a seismogram, not the STRENGTH (energy) of the quakes." With this in mind, let us now get back to comparing the two magnitudes of earthquakes noted in the paragraph above. According to the USGS calculator, the larger M9.0 quake is 31.622 times (or approximately 32 times) stronger in the energy which it releases when compared to the energy released by the smaller M8.0 quake.

By using the USGS earthquake calculator and the information in the second link, we find than an M9.0 quake is 100 times bigger in magnitude on a seismogram --- it produces 100 times more ground motion --- than that which is noted for an M7.0 quake. But once again, it is time to compare what people will be dealing with in real life. In its actual strength, the M9.0 quake is 1000 times stronger in the energy which it releases than is the energy which is released by the smaller M7.0 quake.

Now for a comparison which may become more applicable and more obvious in its usefulness as our Cascadia discussion continues. An M9.0 quake is 1000 times bigger in magnitude or ground motion, as noted by a seismogram, than is an M6.0 quake. But, in real life --- in the reality of that which the general public will experience --- the M9.0 quake is approximately 31,622 (approximately 31.6 thousand) times stronger or more powerful than is the M6.0 quake in the destructive energy released.

Let us now look at a comparison between a quake which is getting close to the range of the predicted Cascadia event, in relation to the size of some of those quakes which are commonly being reported in the news. An M9.0 quake causes 10,000 (10 thousand) times more ground motion than does an M5.0 quake. And, looking at the destructive energy released, an M9.0 quake is 1,000,000 (1 million) times stronger or more powerful than an M5.0 quake. Yes, a Cascadia event may be a very stunning event!


As this section comes to its close, there is one more thing to note. The second USGS link above contains a very important bit of information for our consideration. It states: "Since it is really the energy or strength that knocks down buildings, this is really the more important comparison." Let us not lose sight of this maxim --- that "it is really the energy or strength [of an earthquake] that knocks down buildings(2) --- as we move through a discussion on the coming Cascadia earthquake event.




EARTHQUAKES  IN  THE  NEWS

It has been noted via news sources and certain scientific reports (which will be noted later in this discussion) that the coming Cascadia earthquake event could potentially have a magnitude greater than 9.0. Let us now consider the size of smaller earthquakes and the resulting destruction which has commonly been reported in more recent times by the news media.

The BBC News page linked below relates to the 2016 earthquake which struck the Amatrice, Italy, region. Check out the video and pictures of the resulting damage. This devastation was the result of only an M6.2 quake, plus the death toll was considerably higher than noted on the button below. A Cascadia earthquake event could potentially be about 31-thousand times stronger than this Italian event. Just how much more devastation and loss of life may result from a full-potential Cascadia event?



The CNN page linked below relates to a 2016 earthquake in Taiwan. Note the picture of a devastated area found at the top of the page. This devastation was the result on only an M6.4 earthquake. Again, a Cascadia earthquake event could potentially be about 31-thousand times stronger. So, what could potentially be the results of an M9.0+ Cascadia event? How will especially our major cities really fare?



The page linked below has a picture near the beginning which shows a fractured and shattered city street, with obvious great displacement of the ground. This shattering and displacement was the result of only an M7.8 earthquake. A Cascadia earthquake event could potentially be more than 32 times stronger. Just how much greater will be the fracturing and displacement in the region, should Cascadia cut loose with its full potential?



The pages linked below present information about an earthquake in southern Mexico which occurred late on Thursday, September 7, 2017, just before midnight. There is something important to note about this quake. It was centered about 75 miles off the west coast of Mexico, in the Pacific Ocean. Had this quake been centered on land, near a large city, the outcome would have been totally different.

This quake offshore from Mexico, which originated at a depth of 43 miles, had a magnitude of M8.1/M8.2 (depending on the source). On the other hand, the expected M9.0+ Cascadia earthquake looks like it may occur within the landmass, relatively close to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor and potentially at a shallower depth. The Cascadia quake should also produce about ten times or more the ground motion as that which was created by the Mexico quake. But, there is more to this story.

The expected M9.0+ Cascadia quake may be somewhere around 32 times stronger --- or potentially even stronger than that --- than was the Mexico earthquake in the destructive energy released. And again, lest we forget, research indicates that the Cascadia quake may likely be centered within the landmass, relatively near the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. Because of this, the outcome could be far different --- yes, even far worse --- than that which has been experienced with the offshore Mexico quake.



The page linked below shows that in the M8.1 Mexico earthquake, the ground at the fault shifted a distance of 32 feet. This gives residents of the Cascadia region of western North America something to think about. A much larger M9.0+ Cascadia quake could potentially cause even greater shifting in the landmass.



The articles linked below present another bit of information about the M8.1 Mexico earthquake, which could be of value to residents of the Cascadia region, as we wait for the coming quake. According to the first link, the powerful quake which struck offshore Mexico "triggered strange flashes of bright light that spilled across Mexico." The page states further: "These green and blue flashes of light are an unusual phenomenon associated with large earthquakes."


As part of a personal, earthquake early warning system, it may be of benefit to watch for any similar types of flashes in the Cascadia region. Similar types of flashes in the Pacific Northwest could be signalling the beginning of a massive earthquake and a time to quickly seek a less vulnerable location.

There is something important to declare at this time. The information and questions presented in the sections above should be kept in mind, as we move onward toward an in-depth discussion relating to the coming Cascadia earthquake event.




A  PAGE  TO  CONSIDER

The page linked below is from National Geographic and is titled 'Earthquakes Can Happen in More Places Than You Think.' This page speaks about some important things which are worth considering.


Regarding those all-important geologic fault lines along which earthquakes occur, the line below the page's title declares: "We still don't know where all the faults lie." And, further down in the linked page, things are stated with even more clarity, using the following words: "But we still don't know where most faults lie." Okay. So, why should we be concerned about this?

The difference between the sentences "We still don't know where all the faults lie" and "But we still don't know where most faults lie" can actually be very great. The first sentence could indicate that we only have one or two fault lines which we need to discover and define. On the other hand, the second sentence could indicate that we have multiple hundreds or thousands of fault lines which we don't even know about. So, once again, why should we be concerned about this?

About one-third of the way down the linked page is found the following words: "If you look at the last 100 years of major earthquakes in the U.S., they've all happened on faults we didn't even know existed." Yes, these major earthquakes --- these devastating earthquakes which caught people totally unawares --- "happened on faults we didn't even know existed."

To the writer of this current page, his research indicates the same situation exists in the western United States and in British Columbia, Canada --- in other words, this situation exists in the Cascadia region. The writer has found evidence of a number of serious faults, of which the public seems unawares, which could potentially link up in a Cascadia event and cause devastation far beyond what the public is being led to expect via the common media.




MORE  FROM  THE  PAGE

On another subject, nuclear plants and nuclear waste storage are discussed about one-half the way down the page linked in the section above. Why should information like this be of any importance to people in Oregon and Washington, plus British Columbia, Canada? Well, in eastern Washington state is located the vulnerable Hanford Nuclear Reservation, said to be the most contaminated site in the Western Hemisphere.(1)(2)

There are a number of fault lines which pass through the contaminated and vulnerable Hanford Nuclear Reservation, generally from east to west. Regarding a number of these fault lines, there is now something very important which should be noted about them. Scientists have found evidence which indicates that these fault-line systems pass under the Cascade Mountains and join with fault lines in the region west of the mountains, around the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. So, once "all the dots are connected," in a Cascadia earthquake event, it appears that the region could potentially be facing a disaster of a magnitude for which people are totally unprepared.

So, let us get right down to the point. What happens in the event of a devastating earthquake event in the Oregon and Washington region and surrounding area? Will we quickly find that, on top of devastation caused by the earthquakes, things are greatly compounded as we find that we are also facing a devastating and very long-lasting nuclear disaster in the region, plus in the surrounding areas wherever the radioactive contaminants are carried via wind and water?

In all of this, let us not forget about those important lessons to be learned from the earthquake related, nuclear disaster at Fukushima in Japan. Let us not be oblivious to the lessons to be learned from this ongoing disaster which began in March of 2011, and for which there is no definite end in sight. Let us not forget about the problems which this ongoing disaster has created for many people. But, in Cascadia, things could be different. Instead of the radiation being spread into the ocean, in the United States and Canada, the radiation from the Hanford site would be spread across the land and the people.




CLOSING  THOUGHTS  FROM  THE  PAGE

For those who strongly believe in stable terra firma, the page linked further above gives the following words: "...The idea that the bedrock we walk and sleep upon can somehow become liquid and mobile seems to be really difficult for us to get our heads around." This is true. It appears that most people in the Cascadia region cannot comprehend the magnitude of the situation which they are facing. So, many simply become like an ostrich which sticks its head in the sand.

When considering earthquake hazards, the linked page states: "There are so many things we should be doing as individuals, family members, or communities to minimize this risk: simple things from having a go-bag and an emergency plan amongst the family..." That is the purpose of the current page you are reading --- to give people a more realistic picture of what it appears we are facing in the Cascadia region, plus things people can do in preparation to survive and thrive as best as possible, considering the circumstances.

With the above thoughts and information in mind, let us now begin to learn more about earthquake hazards and other related things.




LESSONS  AND  THINGS  TO  CONSIDER



LESSONS  FROM  NEW  ZEALAND

On November 14 of 2016, New Zealand experienced a large and very unusual earthquake. The M7.8 Kaikoura earthquake moved the South Island "more than 5 metres closer to the North Island."(link) Five "metres" is more than 16 feet that the South Island was moved. But there is more to this story. In this quake, the South Island was "uplifted by up to 8m."(link) Eight meters is a little more than 26 feet of uplift.

The preceding linked page contains some very important information which should be noted by those living in denial in the Cascadia region. This page states: "The earthquake ruptured at least 12 major crustal faults plus another nine lesser faults and there was also evidence of slip along southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone plate boundary..." But there is something even more important to consider.

The page also states: "This complex earthquake defies many conventional assumptions about the degree to which earthquake ruptures are controlled by individual faults, and provides additional motivation to re-think these issues in seismic hazard models." A page, linked here, states that the Kaikoura quake "was one of the most complex ever recorded." The page states further that in this quake, 12 faults ruptured which were "up to 15km apart." Let us look at this further.

Faults up to 9 miles apart, with no apparent or previously known connection, linked up to create this large, very complex earthquake. So, why should people in the Cascadia region care about this unusual event in New Zealand? Well, if a geologic event of this complex nature happened in New Zealand, there is the potential that something like this could happen in Cascadia --- especially considering its complex geology --- with very devastating results.




THOSE  REALLY  IMPORTANT  LESSONS

Computerized earthquake models are commonly used by the scientific community to predict the characteristics of a potential earthquake in a given region. But, this earthquake which happened in New Zealand in November of 2016 "could not have been predicted by existing models."(link) But there is more to this story. The following words were stated by one scientist: "Some of the apparent jumps between faults I don't think any seismic hazards model in the world would have considered a possible scenario."

The page linked above states: "If [the Kaikoura earthquake] had happened 1000 years ago ... if you were to look at it with current paleoseismic methods that are available you would see it as separate individual events. You would never consider it as a single rupture." Now, with these words, there is something to consider.

Paleoseismic methods are used in the Cascadia region to "interpret" what supposedly happened in the last megaquake there in 1700, plus in other, supposedly unrelated quakes in the region. So, because of the way things are being "interpreted," are the methods and models of the scientists in the Cascadia region also flawed --- possibly even to a great degree?

The linked page states further: "It may be in fact that past earthquakes which were considered as smaller, individual ruptures, potentially could have been one big rupture. That feeds into long term hazards, in which you can end up with larger events than you might expect." So, once again turning to Cascadia, what are we really dealing with here? Are we "blindly" trusting in the scientists and their potentially highly flawed seismic hazard models?




YES,  THEY  DO  MAKE  QUAKE  PREDICTIONS

Whether they want to admit to it or not, the scientists actually do make predictions regarding earthquakes and their potential hazards. Using their computer models, the scientists basically declare that the potential quake in a given region should only be such-and-such large and cause such-and-such amount of damage.

Considering the information already given on this page, it is very clear that the models and predictions of the scientists can be wrong --- even drastically wrong. Time has proven, again and again, that scientists can drastically underestimate the earthquake hazard in a given area or region. This produces an extremely dangerous and potentially deadly situation --- especially for the general public at large.




CONSIDERING  SEISMIC  BUILDING  CODES

The page linked here and further above brings up a very important issue --- even a very concerning issue. It states that the seismic hazard models of the scientists "are used by authorities for building codes." Yes, these potentially highly flawed models are used as a "standard" when creating building and seismic codes. So, what does this mean to those living in the Cascadia region? What does it mean to the general public at large?

Will all those modern buildings and structures, including bridges built to the current seismic codes, survive the next Cascadia megaquake unscathed? Or, could a number of them --- potentially many of them --- fail catastrophically, with very devastating and deadly results?

So, about this time we should possibly be asking: "Are we really, in any manner, properly prepared in Cascadia for the next devastating quake? Do we really understand what is coming? Or, have the scientists been instrumental in setting us up to fail on a large scale?"




THOSE  SURPRISED  SCIENTISTS

A page from the LiveScience website, linked here, declares: "In 2004, the entire planet vibrated as an undersea quake near Sumatra pushed tsunamis over coastlines across the Indian Ocean." It also declares: "In 2011, the seafloor jolted and sent waves up to 133 feet (41 meters) high over parts of Japan." And then, as already noted in the sections above, "In 2016, a magnitude-7.8 earthquake ruptured multiple faults near Kaikoura, New Zealand, in what seismologists say could be the most complicated earthquake on record."

The LiveScience page then brings up something very important to consider. It asks the following question: "What do all these events have in common?" And then the revealing answer --- which reveals something especially important for those living in the Cascadia region. It is something which should be taken to heart. Regarding all these surprising and devastating earthquake events, it states: "They happened in subduction zones --- and in every case, the Earth did something scientists absolutely did not expect." But there is more to this story.

Regarding the scientists and trained researchers, the linked LiveScience page declares: "They can't explain the subterranean plumbing of volcanic systems, or how earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are related. They're consistently surprised by megaquakes that rupture areas larger than they thought possible or in places they never predicted."

At this point, some very important questions possibly should be asked. Will things be any different in Cascadia? Will the scientists once again be horribly surprised by the magnitude of the seismic event and the devastation unleashed? Have we been properly prepared by these trained experts? Is there a possibility that the general public has been putting too much faith in these "experts?"




A  REALITY  CHECK



HIGHLIGHTS  OF  THIS  REPORT

What are some of the things which are noted in this report? First off, from the findings presented in this report, it appears that scientists, even with all their very expensive high-tech equipment, do not know what is actually going to happen during the next Cascadia mega-quake event. Furthermore, they do not really know the level of damage it will cause, nor does it appear that they have a realistic picture of the associated deaths and injuries. What is commonly presented in the popular media, regarding these matters, appears to also be a great understatement.

From the available information, it appears that scientists are basically guessing at the magnitude and duration of the next full-potential Cascadia earthquake event. For the most part, their predictions are based on assumed information relating to the mega-quake event in January of 1700, plus information relating to the Japanese earthquake and tsunami of March 2011. It is important to note that in the Pacific region in recent times, the so-called "general concensus" of the scientific community has often greatly underestimated the quake which ultimately occurred.

The truth about the current estimates is this -- relatively little is known about the quake of 1700. For this reason, the next full-potential Cascadia mega-quake event could be much different than what is commonly believed about the quake in 1700. Furthermore, because of the unique geology of Cascadia, the next Cascadia mega-quake could be much different than the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in March of 2011. Once again, the scientists may be taken by surprise and utterly blindsided. This type of situation could become the new "normal."




GETTING  DOWN  TO  BUSINESS

Right up front, the writer will make a very direct statement. It appears that geologic models relating to Cascadia may be flawed -- possibly even seriously flawed. The Reader may ask, "Is this type of situtation really possible, especially considering all the costly, high-tech gadgets at the disposal of the scientists, plus all the time and money (yes, your tax dollars and the like) which they have spent investigating the Cascadia region?"

Let it be known that geologic models, since at least 2004, have proven to be seriously flawed regarding the nature and magnitude of major quake events around the Pacific Rim. So, it appears to be very important for the general public to check out what has been going on, as the information is presented in this report. It is important for each individual to then come to their own conclusion as to the nature and potential magnitude of, plus the potential damage and loss of life relating to, the next Cascadia mega-quake event.

After considering all the information presented herein, you may potentially have a more realistic estimate of the actual quake scenario which will occur in the Cascadia region -- more realistic than that which is commonly presented in the media --- should Cascadia break loose with its full potential.




RUNNING  BLIND ?

Again, because of the importance given to scientists and their beliefs, let us consider some key issues. What is the truth about Cascadia and the science of plate tectonics? Do the scientists really know everything which needs to be known about Cascadia, so they can properly forewarn the public about what to really expect? Let us consider these questions, as we now hear what a professional geologist has to say.

Chris Goldfinger is an Oregon State University professor of geology and geophysics. He is also "one of the world's leading experts on the Cascadia subduction zone."(link) In a 2013 book, he is quoted as stating: "We're still at the blind-man-feeling-the-elephant's-butt stage of plate tectonics. Nobody likes to think of it that way, but it's true."(link) The linked book states further: "The groping extends to the question of whether the world experiences periodic flurries of megaquakes -- and whether one of those periods started with the 2004 Sumatra disaster."

Another person begins their discussion on the geology of the Cascadia region with the following statement: "First, I want to share with you the story of the blind men and the elephant because this story pretty much sums up my experience as a scientist, and my experience with this study" [on Cascadia].(link)

As noted above, there are some scientists who have spoken very candidly about the Cascadia situation, with an unusual amount of openness and honesty. For this reason, let the public take note. The scientists are not all-knowing gods. Yes, as noted above, they appear to be running somewhat blind. For this reason, possibly it is in the best interests of thinking citizens to examine the geologic evidence relating to the Cascadia region for themselves, and then come to their own conclusions on what it may be like and how to properly prepare for the coming earthquake event.




WHAT  ARE  THEY  DOING ?



"MILKING  IT"  TO  THE  LIMIT ?

Over the years, the writer has watched a certain phenomenon taking place. He has watched a repeating series of cycles occurring. The series goes something like this: Scientists in Cascadia will do a number of time-consuming and very expensive tests. Then some tidbits of information will be fed to the media which will cause at least some people to "open one eye." Then, as the newness of the information begins to wear off, most of the people generally "go back to sleep again." At this point, the cycle is started all over again.

By using the repeating series of cycles noted above, people figure the scientists are doing something of value and the grant money (most often in the form of your tax money) keeps flowing in to the scientists for further testing. This appears to give the scientists "job security," even though they may not actually be accomplishing something which will greatly help to reduce the number of casualties in the next full-potential, Cascadia mega-quake event.

In other words, as we consider this whole situation, it appears that the scientists are having fun "milking it," while using public money, but not necessarily giving something of importance or high value in return. And, the money just keeps flowing in. Isn't is about time that the public "woke up." Isn't is about time for them to begin asking what is going on here? Isn't it about time for the general public to quit being "milked."




TIMELESS  WISDOM

In relation to these "testing and information" cycles which appear to be taking place and the use of public money, words of a genuine statesman and the third President of the United States come to mind. Of government entities, Thomas Jefferson declared way back in 1787: "If once the people become inattentive to the public affairs, you and I, and Congress and Assemblies, Judges and Governors, shall all become wolves. It seems to be the law of our general nature, in spite of individual exceptions."(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)




OUR  DAY  AND  AGE

It is time to be very blunt. In our day and age, it appears there is really no true accountability for those government monies (read: your tax dollars) which are so freely spent. It appears that people may be much too trusting and have become very accustomed to being "milked by the wolves." It has become such a way of life that the general public does not even raise the slightest wimper when it happens.

It appears that the public is becoming so programmed that, in many cases, it is now getting to be something like this: "On que, just grab your ankles..." Furthermore, in the Cascadia region, more and more, it appears to be getting something like this: "Just give us more money, so we can smile while giving you information which may not really be of benefit to you. Then, to add insult to injury, we will, whenever we feel like it, vote ourselves a big raise, while not even bothering to properly inform of prepare you for the coming quake. The bottom line is, we come first --- and if there is anything left over... Well, maybe..." Yes...What a deal!

It appears that a considerable amount of public money is being spent or squandered on testing and the production of potentially flawed geologic models about the Cascadia region. So, what is the true value which the general public is getting in return for all of this public money (once again, clearly read: your tax money) which is steadily being spent on all this expensive testing and the production of costly computerized models?

Regarding all of this time consuming and costly computerized modeling of coming geologic events, once again, there is something very important for the public to note and take to heart. Once again --- because of its importance before moving on to other issues --- for a considerable period of time, these expensive models have proven to be greatly flawed. Because the controllers in the scientific community relied more on the models which were produced, rather than the actual geologic record, many people needlessly died. Again, will it be any different in Cascadia?




TIME  FOR  ANOTHER  REALITY  CHECK

Once again, let us consider the words found further above by the third U.S. President, Thomas Jefferson, about government entities becoming wolves, if given the chance. Considering these timeless words of wisdom, does it appear that a number of scientists and government entities possibly have "a very good thing going?" Is there a chance that they are simply "milking it to the limit," like wolves, for the security of that cushy job, which comes with a big paycheck and those multiple benefits, plus all that prestige, power and control --- and then that big retirement?

Looking further and considering "the government tit," does it appear that a number of scientists just may be looking for different and creative ways to use up all that grant money which the government so readily shells out to them, at your expense? Does it appear that the scientists are shelled out all this money, as long as they "walk the party line" and support the elite's agenda -- whether that agenda is right or wrong? Just examine the evidence presented throughout this whole report and you may better understand why questions like those above are being raised.




A  TIME  TO  WAKE  UP



SCREAMING  WITH  OUTRAGE

It appears that someone has part of it figured out. The title of The Seattle Times article, linked below, in part says it all. 'We should be screaming' with outrage... Why? Because it appears that government officials are not doing what is necessary to properly educate and prepare the public for the Cascadia event which is coming. It appears that public officials are not really doing their job. Yet they are "milking" the money out of you, under the pretext that they are doing their job.

Of Washington state, the article declares: "For decades, the state has shrugged off the recommendations of its top earthquake-safety advisers." It also notes that "some lawmakers have been reluctant to sanction a seismic survey of schools, fearing it would uncover deficiencies that would be costly to fix. Then the pressure will be there to do something."

What? Did we just see what we thought we saw? So, we are not supposed to look at the truth, because the truth might reveal that something is wrong and that could cost money to fix? Do not lives matter? Are lives missing from the equation? Do I hear "dereliction of duty" screaming out loudly? What are government officials there for? What is the agenda here? To raise taxes for their own benefit? To party and collect a huge salary, plus obtain all those retirement benefits, at taxpayer expense?


The article indicates that in government, "seismic safety is not a high priority." It appears they have much more "important issues" to be concerned with, like the state Supreme Court order called the McCleary ruling. There is a bottom line to consider in this. If you lose a lot of kids to the earthquake and/or tsunami, the McLeary ruling will have done them no good. It appears that priorities are kind of messed up in government.

From what is noted in the article, it appears that government officials want to remain as ignorant as possible about the Cascadia event which is facing the region and the damage it will do to structures and people, in order to avoid any liability issues "for not doing anything." The bottom line is, they know that something is majorly wrong here and they just don't want to look at it. This appears to be a major case of dereliction of duty! But, there is yet more to this story.

As far back as 1986, a council "warned the Legislature" in this manner: "The potential for injury and loss of life among students and school personnel is enormous and reasonably foreseeable." So, let us make one thing very clear. The government IS NOT ignorant to the danger. They just don't want to do what needs to be done. With this short introduction, let us begin to examine what it appears is facing citizens of the Cascadia region.




CHECK  OUT  THE  FACTS



WORDS  OF  WISDOM

When asked the truth on certain issues by a member of the public, a spokesman in the United States Pentagon once gave the following answer: "Check out all the facts, come to your own conclusions, and you'll most likely be right." With these words in mind, let us work our way into a discussion on the apparent and more realistic seismic hazards which face residents in the Cascadia region of the United States and Canada.




MORE  AMERICANS  AT  RISK

The ScienceDaily webpage, linked below, presents important information about the known or admitted earthquake hazard in the United States. Back in 1994, FEMA estimated that "75 million Americans in 39 states were at risk from earthquakes." But things now look different.

The 2015 report discusses research which was presented at "the annual meeting of Seismological Society of America." It is now believed that "more than 143 million Americans living in the 48 contiguous states are exposed to potentially damaging ground shaking from earthquakes, with as many as 28 million people likely to experience strong shaking during their lifetime." But, there is more to this story.

In regards to the "long-term value of building losses from earthquakes" in the Lower-48 states, the report states that "roughly 80 percent of [the estimated] losses [are] attributed to California, Oregon and Washington." For those living in these West Coast states, this information should hopefully cause people to take the earthquake situation more seriously --- expecially for those living in the Cascadia region.


The report states the following: "In the highest hazard zones, where 28 million Americans will experience strong shaking during their lifetime, key infrastructure could also experience a shaking intensity sufficient to cause moderate to extensive damage."




DEVASTATING  THE  PACIFIC  NORTHWEST

A caption under a picture in the 2015 Business Insider article, linked below, states: "Portland and other areas of the Pacific Northwest would be unrecognizable if the earthquake hits as hard as predicted." Is this just a bunch of hype, or could there be more to this statement than most people realize?


There are many thoughts and opinions on what could happen during and after a massive Cascadia earthquake. Many have their speculations. But the truth is, no one knows for sure what is actually going to happen --- not even the scientists. So, the best approach may be to get informed and prepare for the worst, and if it does not happen, be pleasantly surprised.




FOR  INTENDED  SURVIVORS

This report is written for the layman. It is for those who desire a more complete picture of the earthquake threat which is present in the Cascadia region. It brings up a number of safety issues and hazards in the region. The writer does his best to "connect the dots" and present facts, so that citizens may obtain a more realistic picture of the danger which lurks below the ground, plus the potential carnage which could result from it.

This report also presents some important things to consider regarding how to prepare for and hopefully survive the next Cascadia megaquake. This information is especially important, if Cascadia should unleash with its full potential. Furthermore, this report presents information about things which can potentially identify when a major earthquake is about to happen. Looking at historical records, it appears that some of the earthquake indicators may even help to identify the relative size of coming, large quakes.




WHAT  ARE  WE  DEALING  WITH ?



OF  GREATER  CONCERN

A 2016 YouTube video, linked here, speaks of an earlier interview with Jim Berkland. This man is the famed USGS scientist who has an amazing record for accurately predicting a number of serious earthquakes. From what is stated in the video, Berkland is more concerned about the occurrance of a Cascadia earthquake than he is with a New Madrid earthquake in the central portion of the United States.

Berkland is also concerned about a big earthquake occurring in the Mojave Desert or the southern region of California, where they have not had a large earthquake since 1857. So, it appears that the western coastal states are of the greatest concern, when it comes to serious earthquakes.




TWO  GREAT  RIFTS ?

From the author's research, he believes there may be a common seismic connection between these different West Coast regions, possibly further inland than most people realize. From his research, the author tends to believe that this connection may take the form of a deeply buried, concealed (beneath the continental landmass), north-south trending, ancient rift system. More will be presented on this issue later in this discussion.

To complicate things in the deeper geology of the Cascadia region, there is also a giant, ancient rift which cuts across the United States, from Georgia into the state of Washington. This giant rift, which appears to be concealed beneath thick basalt flows on its Washington end, is discussed in more detail in the right-side margin information, at this level. So, it appears there may be at least two giant, concealed rifts to consider in the seismic picture for the Cascadia region, plus quite a number of crisscrossing faults which are much closer to the surface --- a number of them being directly beneath major population centers.

As a further note, it appears that the two great rifts may intersect deep below the surface in the Puget Sound region. To further complicate things, there are a number of other, generally northwest-southeast trending, large faults and possibly even fault zones which pass deep under the Cascade Mountains. Evidence indicates that these mountain-crossing faults and fault zones seismically connect areas east of the Cascades to the fault systems west of the Cascades. Yes, the Cascadia region is very unique, geologically speaking, and there is a lot more which needs to be learned about it, even by the pros.




FROM  AN  AAAS  FELLOW

The September 2014 webpage, linked below, presents information about the coming Cascadia earthquake. This information is provided by scientist Robert Yeats, who the page notes as being a professor emeritus of geology at Oregon State University, plus an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Fellow.

The page declares that the Pacific Northwest coast could experience a "magnitude 9.0 or greater"  earthquake at virtually any moment. It then declares: "Yet towns and cities from Northern California to Vancouver Island remain woefully unprepared for what follows: the catastrophic destruction of infrastructure, an economic tailspin, and the death of thousands."


In the early 1980s, when Mr. Yeats first heard a presentation about a serious earthquake hazard in the Cascadia region, he felt the information should not be published, for he feared "the sour news might needlessly alarm the public." But, the article states: "He now regrets this."

Mr. Yeats now has a much better understanding of the complex geology which is being dealt with in the Cascadia region, and declares: "If we have a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake, it's going to devastate Oregon and Washington. It will take us decades to recover."

In the words of Mr. Yeats, there is something for us to keep in mind throughout this discussion. That is a "magnitude 9.0 or greater" earthquake. This statement does leave the door wide open for how large the quake could actually be.




THE  "SCIENTIFIC  GAME"



WORD  TO  THE  WISE

It appears that no scientist desires to openly put their name and reputation on the line by stating their "gut feeling" on how large they feel the next Cascadia quake could potentially be. It is much safer to simply say "could," put a base number, and then say "or greater." That way, all your bases are covered. But, the public gets nothing concrete.

The best which can be done in this situation may be this: check out all the facts, come to your own conclusions, and you may potentially be fairly close to what will actually happen. Possibly it may be time to start trusting your own judgment and especially your "gut feelings," rather than the "scientific game," once all the information is thoroughly and properly digested.




QUESTIONS  AND  PURPOSE

At this point, some questions need to be asked. Is there still a fear among members of the scientific community, or among individuals in government positions, that certain information could "needlessly alarm the public" or cause other, related problems? Are a number of the experts afraid, for one reason or another, to present the public with their true feelings on Cascadia and its potential for creating utter devastation?

Is the public being given the full story about what to expect during the next Cascadia megaquake, so they can properly prepare? Furthermore, are government preparations based on a realistic path for the initial or main epicenters of the next, full-rip Cascadia megaquake event? Rather than being far offshore at the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ), as is commonly presented in the news media, is there a potential that the path of the main epicenters could be further inland, even relatively close to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor? The public does have a right to know this type of information! It should not be hidden from them!

Once again, does the potential exist that crucial information is being withheld from the general public: important information which may allow them to better prepare for a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event? It there a potential that this information is being withheld for economic or control reasons? A short discussion on this type of potential, plus an earlier U.S. precedent relating to a serious matter, appears in the left side-bar of this page under the title of Important Lesson from History. History shows that government officials often protect their financial interests, possibly above all else.

The report you are reading covers many areas of information which apply to major earthquakes in general, and Cascadia in particular. The intent of this broad-spectrum report is to answer the questions noted above, as best as possible, with documentation provided. Another purpose of this report is to give information on preparing for, and hopefully surviving after, such a devastating earthquake. Potential signs which historically have indicated that a major earthquake is about to happen are also noted.

Sometimes, just a few seconds or a few minutes warning can mean the difference between life and death. A little warning and time to respond can also help a person to avoid injury. Days, weeks or months of prior notice is even better, especially in the case of a massive, extremely destructive earthquake. That is part of the purpose of this report, to present information about methods used in the past which appear to have helped in forewarning people of coming, massive quakes.




CONSIDERING  SCENARIOS



WORST  POSSIBLE  TIME

What may be the worst possible time for a Cascadia megaquake to occur? When could a massive earthquake event possibly create the largest amount of injuries, death and destruction? These are things to consider as we prepare to examine the stark reality of a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event. These types of things are especially important for emergency planners to consider.

If a megaquake occurred during a time of serious flooding, such as at times similar to those noted in the pages linked below, possibly the greatest amount of injuries, death and destruction would occur across the Cascadia region. The information linked below is just one example of flooding in this region. There has been much worse flooding in the region in earlier years, like in June of 1894 (1)(2)(3)(4). Yes, at that time, an early summer flood occurred.

What is notable about the 1894 flood, especially in the Portland and Vancouver area, is that the river attained the height it did when it was not confined by levees, as it is now. In other words, in 1894 the river could freely spread out across the area surrounding the river, yet its waters still reached such great height. So, what would be the result if a Cascadia megaquake event took place during a repeat of the 1894 flood?

At this point, let us consider a lesser flood which occurred many years after the one in 1894. Let us consider a more mellow 1996 scale flood. Information about this flood is presented in the links below. After viewing this information, once again, consider what it may be like to have a massive earthquake happen at a time like this.



The forum linked below brings up an important piece of information regarding the flood of 1996. One entry declares that "Marine Drive along the Columbia River was closed to truck and car traffic (some concerns about high water levels and vibration along the levee)."

The writer of this report does well remember the closing of Marine Drive and concern voiced about vehicle vibration (yes, simply vehicle vibration) causing the levee under it to give way. If the levee were to fail, it would cause Portland Airport and the surrounding area to become flooded. Considering further, what would be the case for this levee and others like it, if a massive Cascadia quake occurred at a time of major flooding?

Let us note that much more than just simple vehicle vibration would be involved in a case like that described above. In a massive Cascadia quake, we may be looking at violent, undulating ground waves of many feet high in areas with sedimentary and fill materials. Yes, those fill materials would include the very levees and dikes themselves, plus the areas in which they are generally built.


It should be noted that Portland, Oregon, is not the only place in the Cascadia region which could be affected in this manner. There are numerous places in Oregon and Washington, plus in potentially affected areas of California and British Columbia, Canada, which are now "protected" behind dikes and levees. But, that could rapidly change during a massive quake event.

When there is heavy flooding or the ground is heavily saturated from rainfall, generally, the water table in a given area rises. When the water table in a region rises, there is a much greater chance for the occurrance of soil liquefaction during an earthquake, in which case the ground may lose its supporting capabilities and stability -- in other words, no more terra firma.

Under these wet and saturated conditions, there is also a much greater chance for large and destructive landslides, plus the damage or destruction of buildings and infrastructure. Plus, in certain areas, there is a chance that the ground could become like quicksand, during the massive and long-lasting quake event (link). And, if things shook much harder and longer than is expected by the officials, how would you escape, if you happened to be in the midst of a rather large area which suddenly turned to quicksand? (link)

Possibly, as the old saying goes, a person should be prepared to "meet their Maker" at virtually any moment.




CONSIDERING  ANOTHER  FACTOR

Yes, a time of heavy rains and serious flooding would be a horrid time to experience a massive mega-quake. But there is more to this story. Another factor which could potentially make a bad situation worse, depending on the situation, may be a massive earthquake at night, during that time of heavy rains and serious flooding. At night, it is hard to see if dikes, levees or dams along rivers and streams are compromised and flood waters might be bearing down on people in the affected area.

At night, it is much more difficult to observe the effects and hazards created by soil liquefaction and landslides, especially when a person needs to make their way to safety. This situation can be made much worse if most of the power is out and there are no lights. In the dark of night, it is easier to miss important things, plus it may be harder to begin rescue operations. In rescue operations, minutes count. But if darkness and heavy rain impedes things, more people could potentially die.

In the black of night, it is harder to see if your chosen escape route may lead directly into the path of a deadly slide or flash flood which results from a failed dam or levee. At night, it is harder to determine, simply by vision, if there are downed power lines in the path of your chosen escape route, which may still be charged and dangerous for one reason or another. (1) (2) (3)

In the black of night, especially on a night of heavy rains, it may be much harder to note in time that bridges are badly damaged or missing. At night, it may be rather difficult to discern when you are walking into any number of highly dangerous or deadly situations. Yes, the night creates a hazard all of its own --- especially when it is associated with a massive, world-class Cascadia earthquake event.




AND  YET,  ANOTHER  FACTOR

What would a devastating Cascadia event be like, if it occurred in the winter, during a time of heavy snow? Yes, there would possibly be numerous avalanches, besides major landslides, in areas with mountains and steeper terrain. Yes, many additional people could be buried and perish in these events. But there is even more to consider.

During a time of heavy snow, in the dead of winter, would be a horrible time for the electrical power to be out, especially for people without alternative heat and light sources. It would be a horrible time to have major rupturing of natural gas pipelines and water mains. Yes, it would be a horrible time to be without heat, while trying to survive in the midst of devastated structures and infrastructure. It may also be a horrible time to attempt an exit from a dangerous or life-threatening area.

During a winter with deep snow and ice on the ground, it would be much harder to escape flood waters from breached levees or dams, which are rapidly bearing down on populated areas. With impeding snow on the ground in coastal regions, or during a time of serious freezing rain, it could be much harder, or virtually impossible, especially in certain cases, to escape the effects of the inbound tsunami.

Luckily for humanity, massive and utterly devastating earthquakes do not necessarily occur at the worst possible time, nor do they necessarily happen at the best possible time. These earthquakes simply happen when they are meant to happen. That is the bottom line. And, considering further, it is a very sure thing that we have no guarantee for tomorrow.

With the above thoughts in mind, let us now progress into a discussion about the potential nature of a major Cascadia earthquake event, plus ways to help prepare for and hopefully survive it. But first, a consideration of the sizeable area which could be negatively affected by a massive and extended Cascadia megaquake event.




CONSIDERING  CERTAIN  AFFECTED  AREAS



IMPACTING  EVEN  CENTRAL  OREGON

How far inland will the effects of a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event be felt? How far inland could serious damage occur. Well, that depends a lot on where the main epicenters are actually located.

The news article linked below declares: "Earthquake off coast would have serious impact in Central Oregon." The article also states: "That quake is projected to have drastic impacts on Central Oregon, even though the fault is 200 miles away on the other side of a mountain range."

James Roddey, who was a spokesman for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) declares: "The Cascadia quake may be as much as a level 9, and it will be felt for thousands of miles. It will be felt in Salt Lake City and in the Midwest. About 13 million people in Washington, Oregon and California will be affected to different degrees." In Central Oregon, the earthquake and aftershocks "will shake the hell out of you."

Roddey states that "Many Central Oregon buildings will probably survive, but infrastructures such as roads and bridges will suffer extensive damage." Roddey also states: "Imagine Central Oregon is abruptly plunged into darkness, with no communications and all the roads out for an undetermined amount of time."


But, what would be the impact if the main epicenters for the megaquake were much further inland, rather than being far offshore? What would be the impact if the main epicenters were relatively close to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, again, rather than being far offshore? The evidence which indicates that this type of situation can occur is noted later in this discussion.




EVEN  IN  PRINEVILLE

There are even further concerns in Central Oregon. In the page linked below, Don Wood declares himself to be "a concerned citizen with family and friends living here." Mr. Wood has experienced strong earthquakes in Alaska, plus "has extensively researched earthquakes." Wood states that "the Cascadia earthquake will not only hit Prineville [but] it could well change life as we know it."


From his research, Mr. Wood understands "that Prineville is susceptible to liquefaction." Concerning the Ochoco Valley, Wood states that "it will turn into a great big mud bowl with no bottom." Furthermore, the page states that "the Ochoco and Bowman dams are built on fault lines," and during a massive quake, the failure of these dams could flood the valley and cause serious devastation.

In the page linked above, it appears that the officials are discounting what Mr. Wood has to say. But let us, as citizens of the Cascadia region, not be negligent in our duties. Let us consider things a bit further.

A Wikipedia entry on 'Ochoco Dam,' linked here, states that Ochoco Dam "impounds Ochoco Creek to create Ochoco Reservoir." On PDF page 12 of 117 of a Cascade Earth Sciences report from 2005, which is linked here, is found the following words: "Ochoco Creek follows a main fault line, striking at N40-60E. Secondary faults in Scissors Creek strike at N40E and N60E."

Note closely, once again, the words above --- which are found in a 117-page report. It states that "Ochoco Creek follows a main fault line." This means that the two dams --- Ochoco and Bowman dams --- which are built across Ochoco creek, are actually built directly on top of this main fault line. This would mean that Mr. Wood is absolutely correct in what he is stating. But, let us look a bit further. Let us do our best to be responsible citizens.

An Oregon Geology document from 2009, linked here, on PDF page 2 of 20, speaks of "the Prineville Reservoir fault zone..." Another Oregon Geology document from 2009, linked here, on PDF page 7 of 16, speaks of "the north side of Bowman Dam, where a large fault block of Prineville Basalt dips ~30° to 45° to the southwest."

Only time will tell exactly what will happen in the Ochoco Valley of Central Oregon. But, it appears there is concern about this region, especially when it comes to a full-potential and possibly widespread Cascadia earthquake event.




THINGS  TO  CONSIDER

If a massive Cascadia earthquake were actually to be centered far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone, and if a quake centered at this location is projected to have such a drastic impact on far-off Central Oregon (as noted in the information further above, by the DOGAMI spokesman, James Roddey), in this region which is buffered from the earthquake by the Cascade Mountain Range, plus the Willamette Valley and the Coast Range, there are definitely things to consider further.

Just how much shaking will be going on in the region west of the Cascade Mountains? What would such a violent quake be like for those living much closer to the epicenters. Truly, what will it be like for those living in the valleys along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, plus those in the coastal regions? But, let us not be derelict and simply stop here. There is more to consider.

If Central Oregon will be impacted so hard, especially when considering the geology of the region, will it be any different for Central Washington? Will the great shaking put Hanford Nuclear Reservation at much greater risk for disaster, especially when considering the geologic faults which pass under the Cascade Mountains from the Puget Sound area and continue into the Hanford region? But, there is even more to consider in this complex story.

Could there be a risk for a serious nuclear accident at the already dangerous Vitrification Plant which is built for processing dangerous nuclear waste at Hanford, especially considering that this plant may be dealing with uncontrolled nuclear chain reactions (1) in its normal operation? Could the nuclear powered Columbia Generating Station also be at risk? Could a serious Cascadia earthquake event include a devastating nuclear event, possibly even something similar to a "Fukushima" on steroids?




WHERE  IS  THEIR  HEAD ?



PUBLIC  APATHY  AND  MENTAL  STATE

How is the general public (and possibly even various government agencies) responding to warnings about the danger presented by the impending Cascadia megaquake, plus what and how things which will be affected by it?

James Roddey, the spokesman for DOGAMI puts it this way in the news article linked further above: "Most people don't even want to think about getting prepared for an earthquake or any disaster. They approach it like this: An earthquake won't happen. If it does, I can't do anything about it. And those people are just trying to scare us, so we'll ignore them."

The same problem exists in Canada, as noted in the 2015 article linked here. Regarding the monster earthquake which is coming, it states: "This monster's destructive power will be swelled by the dragons of denial that keep the province's citizens from preparing for the shaker they know in their bones is coming."

The Canadian article states: "People don't even have a basic plan. They're better educated about disasters but more apathetic." The article declares: "The vast majority of people in B.C. have not prepared. They may have some bottled water and food but don't have adequate supplies."

The pages linked below present further information about the general apathy and unpreparedness regarding a potentially massive Cascadia earthquake. This apathy and unpreparedness appears to be prevalent among the citizens and the government officials.






REGARDING  THE  MEGAQUAKE



A  DEFINITION

Before getting deeper into this report, it is important to clearly define the term 'megaquake,' as it will be used in this report. The various ways this term is used in various Internet sources will also be noted below.

What is the common definition for a megaquake, as used by the average person? Wiktionary states that a megaquake is "a very powerful earthquake, generally with a Richter scale value exceeding 7." It is also called a "megathrust earthquake." Wordnik gives the same definitions, as do a number of other on-line dictionaries.

Collins English Dictionary defines a megaquake as having "a magnitude of 8 or greater." The Free Dictionary defines a megaquake "in the media as an earthquake of 7.0 or greater on the Richter scale," but "by the US Geological Survey as a magnitude-10 or greater earthquake." So, there is some discrepancy in the use of the word 'megaquake.'

Since this report will mainly be read by the average layperson, the term "megaquake" will be used with its common media definition. This does not mean that the Cascadia region, with its many fault zones and numerous "surface faults," plus other unique geology, is utterly incapable of producing a quake of M10.0 or greater.




ABOUT  THIS  REPORT

To get an accurate picture from this report, it is best to read the total report first, before becoming bogged down or side-tracked in the broad spectrum of information presented in most of the links. But, links to maps, pictures and diagrams should be viewed as you read, for they add to the text and help produce a clearer picture of what is being discussed. Once this report is fully read and a clear picture obtained, then is a good time to look further into the links. This report "paints the picture" and the links provide supporting documentation.

This report will not "sugar coat" things. It gets "very real." If people are not told things exactly as it appears they very well could be, no one is being done a true favor. As a result, people will not be properly prepared for what could be the next, very devastating Cascadia megaquake event. A lack of proper preparation could result in many more casualties and much greater property damage, plus greater hardship in the aftermath.

This report uses excerpts from documentation to present important points. It presents information straight from the experts. It will "break the little boxes" and leave the controlling "money trail" far behind -- that money trail which so commonly "tweeks" science. It is time to put the puzzle pieces together how they fit best to produce a clear, logical picture of a full scale Cascadia megaquake event. Only then can the general public be done a true service.

This report considers a broad-spectrum of things which the general public very likely could be facing, both during the megaquake and in its extended aftermath. It also considers the direction of fault zone rupture, and effects that may have on large population centers. With a relatively accurate picture of a Cascadia megaquake scenario in their minds, the public can properly prepare for their survival in and after the devastating megaquake event which is coming.




IN  RECENT  TIMES



GREAT  EARTHQUAKES,  MORE  OFTEN

It is time to consider the many large earthquakes in recent times. It is time to consider the picture of our changing earth which is forming, plus what it is now doing. It is also time to consider the numerous casualties, and why these people died. This information can help us to understand what the Cascadia region may be dealing with in the times ahead. This information may also help motivate people to take things seriously and prepare properly, that the number of casualties may be reduced.

The 2014 article linked below declares: "The last ten years have been a remarkable time for great earthquakes. Since December 2004 there have been no less than 18 quakes of Mw8.0 or greater - a rate of more than twice that seen from 1900 to mid-2004." The article continues: "Hundreds of thousands of lives have been lost and massive damage has resulted from these great earthquakes."


The link below presents further information about the more recent increase in the rate of large quakes. The link declares: "The annual number of 'great' earthquakes nearly tripled over the last decade, providing a reminder to Americans that unruptured faults like those in the northwest United States might be due for a Big One." The link also states: "It's clear that recent 'great' earthquakes 'triggered' related major quakes..."


The pages linked below present additional information relating to this increase in great earthquake activity in our world. May we take this to heart, as we consider what lies ahead for the Cascadia region of North America.



VIDEOS





LOSS  OF  LIFE  -  SUMATRA

As a result of the massive, eight to ten minute Sumatra earthquake in 2004, 230,000 people in 14 countries perished. A major portion of the death toll resulted from the tsunami. In 2005, there was another large Sumatra earthquake which lasted for two minutes. This time, about 1,300 people died, mainly from collapsed buildings.

In 2007, Sumatra experienced another great earthquake. Only 23 people died this time. Unfortunately, in 2009, the region was again pounded by a large earthquake. There were 1,115 confirmed casualties this time. The larger death toll appears to result from a new batch of collapsed buildings.




PACIFIC  RING  OF  FIRE

It should be noted that Sumatra is within the region called the "Pacific Ring of Fire". For the benefit of those living on the west coast of North America, the Cascadia region is also part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. This is an area which is prone to large earthquakes, plus it has a history of volcanic activity.




LOSS  OF  LIFE  -  WESTERN  HEMISPHERE

In more recent times, there have been devastating earthquakes, even in the Western Hemisphere. It appears the earth is "waking up" and beginning to move around. In 2010, Haiti experienced a devastating earthquake which resulted in more than 100,000 people killed, according to the low estimates. Most of these casualties appear to have been caused by falling buildings.

Looking closer at the Pacific Ring of Fire, in 2010, Chile experienced a massive M8.8 earthquake, with the intense shaking lasting for only about three minutes. Luckily, there were only 525 confirmed casualties in this case. With proper education and preparation, casualties can be reduced.




EXPECT  THE  UNEXPECTED

The webpage linked below declares: "Seismologists were surprised in 2004 when a magnitude-9.3 quake and tsunami devastated Sumatra and caused more than 200,000 deaths around the Pacific Rim. They were surprised again in 2011 by Japan's 9.0 quake and tsunami, which killed more 15,000 people and touched off a nuclear catastrophe that continues to this day."

The page continues: "In each case, experts didn't think the area where one geological plate is diving beneath another --- known as a subduction zone --- was capable of generating a quake that strong."


Lessons on "surprises to the scientists" --- which are available from these earlier megaquakes around the Pacific Ring of Fire --- should be applied to the Cascadia region. Just because the scientists have been predicting an M9.0 or M9.2 quake for the Cascadia region does not mean that it is impossible to have one which is much larger.

It should be noted that faults systems can and do link up during major earthquake events. When fault systems link up, they generally create a much larger quake event than that which could be created by just the single fault zone which scientists may be watching for the expected quake. Because of this, those residents of the Cascadia region should possibly consider becoming prepared for the totally unexpected.




MORE  RECENT  INFORMATION



A  COUPLE  OF  VIDEOS

The author works to provide important and valuable information to the readers of this document. Recently, the author came across a couple of videos which may have some merit, but he has not been able to find a lot of supporting information at this point. Nevertheless, the author is passing along these videos, in the two sections which follow, thereby giving the reader the opportunity to view them and make up their own mind about this information.

The first webpage linked below does provide some supporting evidence for the videos linked in the following two sections. The page linked below speaks of a solar hibernation which was identified by John L. Casey in 2008. The page states further: "It is expected beginning at any time and during the next twenty years of the solar hibernation, that potentially historic volcanic eruptions are likely globally and similarly record setting new earthquakes are likely within the continental United States." The second link gives further information about Mr. Casey.





THE  FIRST  VIDEO

The video linked below speaks about a letter created by John L. Casey, "a former White House space program advisor, NASA Headquarters and Congressional Consultant and space shuttle engineer." (link) The video below speaks about "upticks of 6.8 and higher in earthquake activity as well as volcanic activity due to solar hibernation...," etc. A InvestmentWatch page, linked here, presents similar information.

In the video below, starting at the 8:59 mark, is information from John Casey that states "the fact that at the bottom of every solar hibernation for the past 600 years, that area [New Madrid] has seen devastating earthquakes ranging from M6.8 to M8.0." At about the 10:30 mark, the video states that stronger seismic and volcanic activity should continue through the year 2030.





THE  SECOND  VIDEO

The video linked below speaks about an alleged meeting with a retired Army Colonel who had information obtained from an entity at FEMA. The video states that, "from shear scientific data" the government is "expecting an escalation in natural disasters, like nothing recorded in history." FEMA is concerned "about losing critical infrastructure." The video speaks about "major separation of landmass." What exactly is coming? What are the experts preparing for?

The video states that "large earthquake swarms are going to become the new normal." It states "where we normally would have 3.5, 4.0" etc., or smaller, there will be an uptick in swarms to "6.5, 7.5, 7.0," which "could trigger a megaquake." The video states that the scientists "are so confused right now and they're reporting things that they don't even understand. They're reporting large changes, like changes that are happening so fast."


It appears that since scientists have been brainwashed into believing that things have always happened at a slower pace in geology upon this earth, they do not know how to deal with the rapid speed at which things now change. At the time of the video, 38 volcanoes were erupting upon this earth. What is coming? The author has reason to believe that we have not seen anything yet. Just wait a bit longer.

There is one more important thing to note from the video. At the meeting, people were told that it "would behove you to make sure that you have preparations for, at the very least, months of being off-grid" while waiting for relief. The video linked above appears to be considering a disaster of a magnitude which is far greater than that which is commonly presented to the public via the mainstream media.




IN  RAPID  SUCCESSION

The April 2016 page, linked below, asks: "Why is the crust of the Earth shaking so violently all of a sudden?" Seismologist Roger Bilham has recently stated that "current conditions might trigger at least four earthquakes greater than 8.0 in magnitude," and then goes on to state: "And if they delay, the strain accumulated during the centuries provokes more catastrophic mega earthquakes."


With all the major earthquakes which have been happening around the Pacific Ring of Fire, it would be relatively easy to ask, "Will Cascadia soon be experiencing its devastating megaquake?"

Once again, it should be noted that major earthquakes have been coming at twice the previous rate in recent times. It should also be noted that Cascadia has been quiet for a long time, which has given time for stress to build to a much higher level, possibly twice as fast as before. Therefore, does the potential exist for the quake which is ultimately unleashed to be far in excess of that which is currently being expected by officials and emergency responders?




EARTH  MOVEMENTS



A  TELL-TALE  MAP `

There is a map by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) which needs to be seriously considered in this discussion, for it is very informative. The webpage for the map is titled 'Largest Earthquakes in the World Since 1900.' It must be noted that most of the world's largest earthquakes have occurred within the Pacific Ring of Fire.

There is something unusual to note about this map. Things have been "popping" around the Ring of Fire, but the west coast of North America has been unusually quiet. There is a reason why it has been unusually quiet, and it appears this quietness is what scares knowledgeable scientists and emergency planners the most.


While other places around the Pacific Ring of Fire have been "popping off" regularly, stress has been steadily transferring to other areas and also building in the Cascadia region. This unusual quietness in Cascadia has been going on for more than 300 years. But, it appears this could rapidly change.




REMOTE  TRIGGERING

The 2012 page linked below begins with the following sub-heading: "Shakers can set off shaking in other parts of the world, new research shows." The page states: "The giant earthquake that unleashed the Indian Ocean tsunamis in 2004...might also have triggered other quakes around the world, new findings reveal."

The page states further that "major earthquakes may routinely set off smaller jolts, even on the opposite side of the planet and in areas not prone to quakes." The article asks if large quakes can trigger other large quakes. At least at this moment, the common answer appears to be, "Probably not." A more realistic answer may be, "Only time will tell."


The 2013 page below states: "Big earthquakes cause other quakes far away at least 9 per cent of the time." The page states that "huge earthquakes in recent years" have "caused many to question whether one large quake can cause another on the other side of the world." The page shows that "the 2012 Indian Ocean megaquake" is linked "to a fivefold increase in magnitude 5.5 or greater quakes the world over, for up to a week following the tremor."


The 2014 page linked below speaks about a study which shows that the M8.8 Chile earthquake in 2010 caused icequakes "3,000 miles away, in Antarctica." The page states: "The study adds further proof of a disturbing phenomenon, in which giant quakes can actually trigger other earthquakes thousands of miles away."


Could remote triggering be involved with the next Cascadia megaquake? Could a distant earthquake be the trigger which ultimately breaks free the locked plates in the Cascadia region? The bottom line is, no one really knows for sure, not even the scientists. Only time will tell the truth on this matter.




CLOSER  TO  HOME



STRONGER  GROUND-MOTIONS

The findings of a study by College of Science geophysicist John Anderson are noted in the link below. Now for a question, and then an answer. What is the importance of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan? It is a small reminder of those things which inhabitants of the Cascadia region will experience in the days ahead.

Mr. Anderson declares: "The Cascadia fault line...could have much stronger ground-motions than those observed in Japan." Why is this? Because the fault system which produced the Tohoku earthquake is "only half the length of Cascadia." Furthermore, "the Cascadia trench sits much closer to the coastline than the trench off the coast of Japan."


Mr. Anderson states further: "Some models predict that a Cascadia earthquake will not rupture so far under the land, but if it does, the data from the Tohoku earthquake predict stronger ground motions along our west coast than those seen in Japan."

Once again, the words above are by a knowledgeable geophysicist. It should be noted that even they, in their words above, leave open the option that Cascadia could potentially rupture far under the landmass.




FINDINGS  FROM  GPS  DATA

The thesis, linked below, presents findings obtained from continuous GPS array data. On thesis page 3 of 63, is found the following: "...The upper limit of transient slip in the vicinity of Seattle, Washington and Vancouver, British Columbia comes close to the heavily urbanized regions."

Pages 3 and 4 of 63 speak of "observed interseismic deformation patterns, which [are] consistent with significant plate coupling extending closer to urbanized areas than has been previously thought." It speaks of the geologic stress "likely accumulating much closer to the population centers of the Pacific Northwest than previously supposed."


Page 48 of 63, in the thesis above, states that "nearly half of the coupling strength is maintained significantly more east of the deformation front than previous models predicted." Page 14 of 63 declares that "...the Cascadia convergent thrust retains approximately 50% of its strength to as far east as the Puget Lowlands." The Puget Lowlands, according to the WA DNR website, is the region "situated between the Cascade Range to the east and the Olympic Mountains and Willapa Hills to the west."

The thesis continues: "This is significant because the implications from such a model would extend the seismogenic zone width, and therefore the potential hazard from a mega-event, closer to the major population centers of the region." The diagram on thesis page 53 of 63 is significant, for it shows the zone of coupling extending inland as far as Portland, Oregon and Seattle, Washington, plus very near Vancouver, British Columbia.




HEAVILY  POPULATED  URBAN  AREAS

Page 54 of 63, in the thesis linked here and above, declares: "The coupling strength that is being maintained further downdip is likely accumulating stress for potential megathrust tremor disturbances further eastward into the heavily populated urban areas." Please note the words: "into the heavily populated urban areas." The word "INTO" is something which should cause us to take note.

There is something important to note in the Conclusions, on page 56 of 63. It states: "The significance of this potential should not be underestimated. Most building structures in the Pacific Northwest are vulnerable to a megathrust event of this potential magnitude due to the absence of earthquake coding, especially bridges and reinforced brick buildings."

The thesis being discussed was written in 2008. Since that time, earthquake coding has improved, to a degree. But it is based, to a large degree, on the scenario of an offshore Cascadia rupture with earthquake epicenters about seventy miles offshore. The report you are now reading, especially in the latter part, will examine evidence which shows a line of ground shifting that would tend to support the concept of Cascadia megaquake epicenters relatively close to heavily populated urban areas within the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.




IN  THE  PUGET  SOUND  REGION

Are there any signs which may indicate things are actually moving much closer to heavily populated urban areas? Consider the information presented in the webpage linked below. It states: "In total, more than 8,000 earthquakes have been recorded," since December 22, of 2015 in the Puget Sound region. The page itself was published on January 7, 2016. But, there is something interesting about all these quakes. It was "noticed that the swarm of earthquakes was drifting south, from North Vancouver Island to Seattle."


Now, there is this major swarm of earthquakes with epicenters which are drifting south, "from North Vancouver Island to Seattle." Let us now consider the response from a scientist at the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). They stated: "It's interesting, we don't understand it but we don't think it's dangerous." The scientist stated further: "It seems regular, but in fact it's not. The last couple of years it's been a more complicated pattern, but two years before that it was pretty regular with 14-month intervals."

It appears that the scientists are baffled by what is going on. This is made clear in the following statement: "...We don't understand it," so therefore, they declare publically: "we don't think it's dangerous." What a statement! Possibly a drifting series of quakes like this, plus the change to a more complicated pattern in more recent times, should be raising a caution flag. Yes, in light of all the major earthquakes occurring around the Pacific Ring of Fire in recent times, at twice the previous rate, we should be taking note of this change in Cascadia earthquake patterns.

From the writer's research, it appears that this swarm of more than 8,000 earthquakes was generally following in line with a deeply buried, concealed rift. The numerous quakes were following what appears to be a very major, ancient rift, which is now covered over by the continental landmass. It should be noted in the article that: "Many of the quakes are occurring at a depth of about 30 miles." The writer believes that this would place these quakes in the region of the ancient rift. At a later date, the nature of this ancient rift may be discussed further.




POINT  OF  RUPTURE



HYPOCENTER  AND  EPICENTER

Page 56 of 63, in the thesis linked here and further above, speaks of a megaquake "with a hypocenter under the Puget Lowlands and very near the population centers of Portland, Seattle and Vancouver." The USGS website, linked here, states: "The hypocenter is the point within the earth where an earthquake rupture starts. The epicenter is the point directly above it at the surface of the Earth."

From information presented in the linked thesis, it appears there is a potential for epicenters of the next Cascadia megaquake to be located very near the major population centers in the Cascadia region. Could a Cascadia megaquake with epicenters near major cities also trigger other, more shallow faults in the region, possibly even directly below many cities? Could this scenario greatly magnify the devastating effects of the megaquake event?




MORE  THAN  SIXTY  KILOMETERS  INLAND

The article linked below declares: "Major earthquakes occurring along the Cascadia subduction zone off the coast of Washington state could strike closer to the state's urban areas than some models have suggested, a new study notes."

The article states that "slippage along the interface between the North American and Juan de Fuca tectonic plates could occur as deep as 25 kilometers below the Earth's surface." This "would place the epicenters of quakes triggered along that portion of the subduction zone --- some of which could exceed magnitude 9 --- more than 60 kilometers [more than 37 miles] inland."


Cascadia megaquake epicenters which are more than 37 miles inland from the coast would put the epicenters of these devastating earthquakes much closer to major population centers in the Cascadia region. It would also put the epicenters for the next, devastating Cascadia megaquake about 110 miles closer to the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, in central Washington state, than previously thought.




EFFECT  ON  CITIES



THE  NEW  STUDY

The 2009 and 2013 articles linked below speak of a new study for the Cascadia thrust fault. They state: "If the new findings are accurate, the fault will rupture within 110 kilometers (68 miles) of downtown Seattle, pouring seismic energy into a densely populated urban area, threatening to knock down buildings both large and small..."

The articles declare: "Ground shaking could be up to five times stronger than anyone has planned for. Everything from small buildings to skyscrapers would be at risk of collapse." Timothy Melbourne of Central Washington University declares: "What this really means is emergency service planners need to take a long, hard look at the policies they have in place for dealing with an earthquake."


Since the Cascadia fault can rupture along its north-south length, it is only logical to assume that the same seismic hazard is facing Portland, Oregon and the region around Vancouver, British Columbia. Physical features of the Cascadia region, which point to the potential for a very serious seismic hazard along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, will be examined later in this report.

The articles linked above state further: "No one disagrees with the danger Cascadia poses to the region." One scientist declared that these "findings aren't new." It then states: "Previous studies suggested that rupturing could spread deep along the fault." But then that scientist declared: "To be safe, those estimates have already been built into hazard maps in both Canada and the United States." But, the writer will add, considering the track record lately of surpises to the scientists: "Possibly citizens should be questioning further."




FURTHER  CONSIDERATION

Have only the widely known or commonly accepted factors "been built into hazard maps in both Canada and the United States?" Are factors discovered by scientists who are outside of "the clique" and who differ from the declarations of the status quo generally ignored in the making of hazard maps? Are the commonly accepted factors of "the clique" used in making these hazard maps based on the scenario of a Cascadia rupture with earthquake epicenters far offshore, at the so-called subduction zone?

Again, what about all the unknowns and surprises which have utterly blind-sided scientists and the status quo during the recent spate of megaquakes around the Pacific Ring of Fire? What about the "unknowns" which were often recognized or proclaimed beforehand by some "minor" scientist who differed from the status quo and was generally ignored, prior to the event? These types of situations shall be noted in more detail on certain occasions later in this report, one case clearly being shown under the section called "Blinded by Models," which is linked here.

Now for a couple of very important questions. Have the "unknowns" or "surprises" --- have those things which are often clearly recognized and known by some more minor scientist who is outside of "the clique" and who differs from the status quo, and is generally ignored by "the clique" --- all been factored into the hazard maps? It is time to get very real. Does anyone really need to be told the answer to the question which was asked?




MISSING  FACTORS ?

From the author's research over the years, he has reason to believe that there are at least one or two other, very important factors missing from the information and models used to estimate earthquake hazards in the Cascadia region. Significant geologic factors will be discussed in this and other reports destined for this site. Signs which tend to betray the presence of at least one important, generally overlooked factor will be noted later in this report.

Furthermore, the author's research has given him reason to believe that the currently-accepted Cascadia Subduction Zone model (1) (2) (3) (4) may be flawed. If this is true, and major data is missing from the model, the damage and casualty predictions for the next full-potential Cascadia event may be seriously underestimated.




A  FEW  CLUES

One very important factor which appears to be missing from data and models used to predict the characteristics and effects of the next full-potential Cascadia megaquake is more than just the giant cross-nation rift that penetrates into Washington state. This giant cross-nation rift, which extends from the state of Georgia, in the southeast, to the state of Washington, in the northwest, is noted in the right-hand side-bar of this page at the level linked here.

Once again, the author's research has led him to believe that there is a major, north-south trending rift deep below the surface of the Cascadia region. This major rift appears to generally follow or parallel the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. The top of this rift is located far down at the "basement" of the continental crust.

Major geologic features which help tell the story behind this giant, north-south trending concealed rift are found far out in the western portion of the Pacific Ocean. Other major geologic features which helps tell the story of this giant concealed rift are located just off the western continental shelf of North America.




POTENTIAL  LOCATION

It is time to consider at what depth is now located the top of the ancient rift. It appears that this rift was originally part of the oceanic ridge and rift system. But, from various features in the Pacific Ocean. especially by what is indicated by one very large feature, it appears that the North American continent slammed into and overrode this rift system rather suddenly, as the continent moved westward in times past. It appears that the rift now resides beneath the continental landmass and, once again, it may roughly parallel the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.

Because the deeply buried or concealed rift was formerly part of the oceanic rift system, as we begin to consider at what depth may now reside the top of this rift, let us note the depth below sea level to the floor of the ocean in the Cascadia region. Let us now look at the Cascadia Basin.

The top surface of the Cascadia Basin, which is an abyssal plain off the West Coast of North America, according to one source, resides at a depth of 2660 meters (link), or approximately 8700 feet. Below the top surface of this abyssal plain is about "200 meters of impermeable sediments." This indicates that the top of the rigid oceanic crust resides at a depth of about 2860 meters, or approximately 9400 feet, below sea level.

Another source states that "the maximum water depth [in the Cascadia Basin] is 2930 meters (link)." Add to this the 200 meters of sediments and we are looking at the top of the true ocean crust residing at a depth of approximately 3130 meters, or about 10,270 feet, below sea level.

At this point, we must consider what happened when the continent overrode the oceanic rift system. The weight of the continental mass on top of the rift would have forced the overridden oceanic crust to sink deeper into the mantle. Information regarding this type of sinking phenomenon is found on a page at the University of Wisconsin website, which is linked here.

A graphic which should help illustrate this sinking phenomenon from the weight of an overridden continental landmass is linked here. Looking at the linked graphic, and considering the Cascadia region and the overridden rift, a potential location for the top of the rift would be at the bottom of the continental crust, somewhere above the word "Lithosphere."




ADDITIONAL  INFORMATION

So, how far down below the surface of the continental landmass could now reside the top of this ancient rift, which was formerly part of the oceanic rift system? Let us consider something. The article linked below is about the San Andreas fault in California. But, it may contain some information which may help answer our question, because the rift beneath the continent under California, Oregon and Washington may be at approximately the same depth.

The July 2016 Los Angeles Times article, linked below, speaks about a "fault [which] is super weak." Then the article makes a notable statement. Regarding this fault, the article declares that "there's 20 miles of rock sitting on top of it." But, it must be noted that this is just one article. There may actually be much more to this story about the depth which we are considering for the top of the ancient rift.


The page linked below also speaks about the San Andreas fault in California. Regarding the part of the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California, the page states: "The challenge that seismologists face is that there's five miles of rock between them and what they want to study." The page states further: "The action is at depth." It then speaks about the Hayward Fault, which parallels the San Andreas and is "10 kilometers (6 miles) deep."


From what is stated in the first article linked above, it appears that about 20 miles below the ground surface is where it is believed, by the common teachings of science, that the continental crust "transitions to the Earth's mantle." Now, can there be faults or shear zones which expend even into the Earth's mantle? The webpage, linked below, indicates that there can be.





CONSIDERING  A  POTENTIAL  RANGE

From all which is presented in the preceding section, let us now consider a realistic range of depth below the surface of the ground (or generally, below sea level) at which resides the top of the ancient, formerly oceanic rift which is now deeply buried below the continental landmass.

The first article linked in the preceding section makes it appear that the ancient oceanic rift could possibly reside at a depth of about 20 miles below the ground surface in the region of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. The second article linked in the preceding section makes it appear that the ancient rift could reside at a depth of about 5 to 6 miles below the surface of the ground in the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. At least we now have some type of a depth-range to work with for this ancient rift, until we can increase the accuracy of our depth estimate using better information.

Now, 5 to 6 miles below sea level translates to 26,400 to 31,680 feet below sea level. Looking at Pacific Northwest mountains -- the tip of Mount Rainier resides at an elevation of about 14,410 feet above sea level and the tip of Mount Hood resides at an elevation of about 11,250 feet above sea level. The 5 to 6 miles below sea level would translate to approximately the height of 2 Mount Rainiers or the height of 2-1/2 Mount Hoods, except for that vertical distance now being translated into a depth below sea level.

As considered in the first article linked in the preceding section, a depth of 20 miles (or 105,600 feet) below the ground surface (or roughly, below sea level) would equal about 7 Mount Rainiers in vertical distance, or about 9 Mount Hoods in vertical distance, transferred to a below-sea-level depth. So, the 5 to 20 mile depth-range translates approximately to a range of 2 to 7 Mount Rainiers below sea level, or 2-1/2 to 9 Mount Hoods below sea level. Somewhere in this depth-range should be the top of the ancient oceanic rift, which is now buried beneath the continental landmass.

This depth-range for the top of the deeply buried ancient rift may appear as being very great when we consider a distance of 5 to 20 miles on the surface of the earth. But, look at the whole earth using a program like Google Earth. At this world-class scale, a 5 to 20 mile thickness would almost be like a relatively thin "skim coat" on the surface of the earth.




SCHEMATIC  BLOCK  DIAGRAMS

The document linked below is from the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. On PDF page 8 of 13 are two schematic block diagrams which show the relatively parallel fault systems which pass under Portland, Oregon. According to these two diagrams, it is believed that the faults go relatively deep into the landmass.


Upon considering the two block diagrams in the link above, the writer believes these north-south trending faults (link) are affected by or connected to a major north-south trending geologic feature which resides deep below the surface of the earth. He believes that this geologic feature likely is the deep-seated, north-south trending concealed or buried rift which resides beneath the miles-thick continental landmass.

It should be noted that the three major faults passing through the area of Portland, Oregon are associated with a major band of north-south trending faults which pass through California, Oregon and Washington. This major band of faults is shown on the map linked here.

When examining the schematic block diagrams noted above, there is something important to observe. Even the geologists do not know for sure the subsurface geometry or configuration of these fault systems, even just a few miles under the surface. That is why there is two potential configurations shown by the two diagrams.

It appears the scientists are simply taking their best educated guess or guesses, based on information they have examined. But, it does make logical sense that these fault systems could be the result of something deep below the surface of the earth, something like a deep-seated, major rift system -- that ancient oceanic rift which is now covered over by the continental landmass.




SUBTLE  INDICATORS

An article about a giant cross-continent rift, which is linked here, brings up a reason why geologists tend to have a harder time discerning older faults in the ground in the Pacific Northwest. The article indicates that it can be harder to trace fault systems, and possibly even a large rift system, "because of alluvial deposits and the basalt covering over older rocks..."

In the region of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, there are numerous lava vents and flows which have worked to bury the older, possibly rifted rocks in the region. A USGS map which notes 95 lava vents in just the Portland area is linked here. Then there are the Columbia River Flood Basalts to consider. The general area of these basalt flows is shown on the USGS map linked here. Note how these basalt flows cover the area in which now resides Portland, plus a distance both north and south along what is now the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.

Over the basalt and other lava flows may be layers of ash and sedimentary materials. In places, these ash and sedimentary deposits may be very thick. Beneath all of these later layers, plus beneath the deeper continental landmass itself, may reside the ancient, north-south trending rift. It appears that it is often subtle indicators or a series of faults (link) closer to the surface which can betray the presence of a much deeper geologic feature or major rift.

With all the preceding thoughts in mind, let us begin to examine earthquake phenomena and preparations.




MOVING  ONWARD



A  SIGN  OF  PREPARATION

To those in the know, there is one obvious sign that the Cascadia region is preparing for a massive earthquake. That sign is the type of new bridges being constructed. The new, replacement Port Mann Bridge by Vancouver BC is a very special design of suspension bridge. The new, Tilikum Crossing, in Portland, Oregon (which does not permit normal car traffic) is also a very special design of suspension bridge. There is a reason why suspension bridges are now being built.

The videos linked below speak of a couple of "quake-proof" bridges. It should be noted that suspension bridges are generally more quake-resistant than many other types, but they are not utterly quake-proof. It seems that when humanity thinks they have outsmarted Nature, they are often thrown a very devastating new curve and utterly blind-sided, as Nature devastates their best efforts.


Yes, suspension bridges are known for holding up better to earthquakes, than are many other designs. But, let us now ask the billion dollar question. Will our best bridge designs hold up to that which the next full-rip Cascadia megaquake will throw at us, without major damage? We may all know the answer to this question in the days ahead.




ANOTHER  SIGN

Under the video, in the article linked below, are found these words: "Portland bicyclists train for the big Cascadia earthquake. When the Big One hits, knocking out much of Portland's transportation system, the city will be able to get help from an asset that most large U.S. cities don't have in the case of an emergency: a vibrant bicycling community. The Disaster Relief Trials, held at OMSI on Saturday, July 19, 2014, helps volunteers on cargo bikes, electric-assist bicycles and even skateboards prepare for when the Cascadia Subduction Zone shakes the city."

The article states: "When the next great Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake shakes Portland, roads will buckle, bridges will crack and fuel will be rationed. In fact, according to the city's disaster planning documents, much of the city's transportation system will be useless." During the trials:  "Cell phones were turned off. Cyclists used paper maps and pedal power to move supplies." The article states: "Event organizers said the trials also show why a bicycle should become part of every home disaster readiness kit."





A  QUICK  COMMENT

Before the discussion on 'signs of preparation' continues further, there is an important comment which needs to be made. The emergency preparations being made are based on megaquake epicenters located far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone. It is now time to get very, very real. What if, by chance, the initial hypocenters and epicenters for the next massive Cascadia megaquake event happen to be located much closer to heavily populated urban areas than expected? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Let us consider this matter further. What if the hypocenters for the next Cascadia megaquake event are located in the area of the deeply concealed ancient rift, which appears to be located far below the surface along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor? Possibly things could end up being much different in the Portland area than emergency planners are expecting or preparing for.

With earthquake epicenters relatively close to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, a lot of ground in the Portland area may have the potential for being extremely torn up (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic), possibly even over large areas (pic). There may be many large fractures (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) , plus a lot of shifted ground (pic) (pic) (pic). There could also be new areas of water (pic) (pic) , plus possibly even areas of mud (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) , caused by liquefaction.

Just the factors noted above could make things extremely hard for bicycles. Then, add to this picture the fallen trees and power lines (pic) (pic) (pic) , plus other debris from landslides (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) and collapsed buildings (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) (pic) , plus other structures (pic) (pic).

Welcome to the jungle! Welcome to Reality 101. The pictures linked above could be somewhat similar to our new reality in the Pacific Northwest, after a massive Cascadia megaquake event. In this case, skateboards (which were also used in the Portland disaster drill) would potentially have very limited application and may be completely out of the picture as a means for realistic transportation of emergency supplies. Now, back to signs of preparation.



EARTHQUAKE  DRILLS

The webpages linked below present information about a large-scale earthquake drill called "Cascadia Rising," which included many government agencies. But, after examining the information, there could be a flaw in the government preparations. One of the pages states: "The four-day event, called Cascadia Rising, is built around the premise of a 9.0 magnitude earthquake 95 miles off of the coast of Oregon..."

Again, what will things be like if the epicenters for the massive Cascadia earthquake are actually located far inland, much closer to heavily populated urban areas? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)   It should be noted that in massive earthquakes in recent times, the scientists, in many cases, have been utterly blindsided. Nature threw them a "curve" which they were not truly expecting. So, even with all of these emergency preparations, because of the potential for a different location for the epicenters, could we still be vastly unprepared?



The links below access information about other earthquake drills. The first linked page, by The Great Oregon Shake Out, states: "While the potential earthquake hazards depend upon your location, you could be anywhere when an earthquake strikes- at home, at work, at school or even on vacation. What we do now will determine our quality of life after our next big earthquake. Are you prepared to survive and recover quickly?"



Considering the seismic potentials for the Cascadia region, plus the level of destruction which could occur, the writer can agree with the part about getting prepared to survive. But, he may not necessarily agree with the concept of things recovering quickly to anywhere near "life as usual." It could take decades to truly recover from a full potential Cascadia event. There is also the potential that life in the Cascadia region could be changed forever.




ON  THE  COAST

The CBS News article linked below notes some earthquake and tsunami preparations which are being made on the Washington coast. In one case, "students at an elementary school in Westport, Washington, practice going to the top floor." But the article states: "Scientists say these drills might be futile -- because the inevitable tsunami could be higher than the school."

In another instance, the article speaks of "a vertical evacuation structure...on the roof of a new school." This structure is "44 foot high with 14 inch thick walls." It appears that a certain group of people are portraying the belief that "thousands of students and residents seeking refuge could be saved." But, again, this coastal structure is only 44 feet high. Will that be anywhere near high enough and will it truly stand up to the actual effects of the earthquake scenario? Once again, only time will tell the real truth on this matter.


Concerning a massive earthquake in the Cascadia region, the Wikipedia entry, linked here, declares: "Geologists have also determined the Pacific Northwest is not prepared for such a colossal quake. The tsunami produced could reach heights of 80 to 100 feet (24 to 30 m)." A Seattle Times article, linked here, also speaks of "waves of up to 100 feet" high.

When speaking of a Cascadia tsunami, an article in The New Yorker, linked here, declares: "It will be a five-story deluge of pickup trucks and doorframes and cinder blocks and fishing boats and utility poles and everything else that once constituted the coastal towns of the Pacific Northwest."

If a tsunami with a height of 80 to 100 feet were to strike the coastal regions of Cascadia, it would utterly overwhelm the so-called "survival" structures which are being built in these areas. People taking refuge in these structures may simply become statistics.




MISTAKEN  IDENTITY

In regards to a Cascadia regional megaquake, once again, there is one apparent error which appears in virtually all governmental emergency plans. These emergency plans are based upon a megaquake with epicenters located far offshore along the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone, rather than far inland, much closer to heavily populated urban areas. This report will later examine a potential reason why there is this major case of mistaken identity.

It appears that governmental agencies are planning for an earthquake scenario which is much less devastating to urban areas. But if, by chance, the epicenters are located much closer to, or possibly even directly under, heavily populated urban areas (as indicated in the findings of this report), the devastation will be much greater than anyone has planned for. How will they cope then? Are they really ready?




JUST  A  GLIMPSE

The links below access photos on the Internet from other earthquakes in the western states and Alaska. These pictures give some idea of things which people may be dealing with in the aftermath of a Cascadia megaquake.

The 1964, M9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake may indicate what some areas of Cascadia may experience. Note how the ground is torn up in a number of the photos. It should be noted that because of the very unique geology in the Cascadia region, things could be far different. There is even a chance, considering the unique geology of Cascadia and the characteristics of the coming quake, that things could be much worse.

In the 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake, it was very lucky that no tall buildings, major bridges, or overpasses were in the area, or buildings built on really steep hillsides. It was especially good that there were not structures built on stilts or pilings, on steep hillsides, such as exist in the West Hills of Portland and possibly other areas in Cascadia. And now, those self-explanatory photos from Alaska and elsewhere, which show just some of what can happen during larger earthquakes.


ROADS & STREETS:
(1964, M9.2, Turnagain Arm, Alaska)     (1964, M9.2, Anchorage, Alaska)     (1964, M9.2, Turnagain Arm, Alaska)
(1964, M9.2, Anchorage, Alaska)     (1964, M9.2, Turnagain Arm, Alaska)  (Note: It appears car was edited into preceding photo.)

BRIDGES & OVERPASSES:
(1989, M6.9, Loma Prieta, California)     (1994, M6.7, Northridge, California)     (1994, M6.7, Northridge, California)
(2010, M8.8, Chile)     (2010, M8.8, Chile)     (1989, M6.9, Loma Prieta, California)

BUILDINGS:
(1964, M9.2, Anchorage, Alaska)     (1964, M9.2, Turnagain Arm, Alaska)     (1999, M7.6, Chi-Chi, Taiwan)
(2011, Christchurch, New Zealand)     (1999, M7.3, Taipei)     (1964, M9.2, Anchorage, Alaska)    
(1999, M7.6, Dali City, Taiwan)     (1994, M6.7, Northridge, California)

HOUSES:
(1964, M9.2, Turnagain Arm, Alaska)     (1964, M9.2, Turnagain Arm, Alaska)     (1964, M9.2, Turnagain Arm, Alaska)

RAILROAD & CONCRETE DAM:
(1965, M6.5, Seattle Earthquake)     (1999, M7.6, Chi-Chi, Taiwan)

The pages and pictures linked below show the destructive effects of earthquakes and tsunamis in more recent times. The quakes which caused this damage are generally much below the strength of earthquake which is predicted for the Cascadia region. These pictures should help to give at least some idea of the type of destructive seismic energy which the Cascadia region appears to now be facing.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28)




LOOKING  AT  NEPAL

The photos linked below are from the M7.8 April 2015 Nepal earthquake. It is true that the majority of their buildings were not built to the standards of our more modern buildings in the western United States. But there is something else to consider.

The shaking during a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event may be far more intense, plus last for a much longer period of time. In such a situation, even a number of our more modern buildings may come tumbling down, forming large rubble piles in which people are trapped or crushed. There is also the deadly shower of glass to consider, and how it will affect people on the streets below. Could this shower of broken glass produce a slashing or impaling "rain" of death?

(Devastated home)     (Crumbled building)     (Another crumbled building)     (Total collapse)    
(Leaning buildings)     (Before and after)     (Shattered dreams)     (Another shattered life)    




SEISMIC  RETROFITS

Some people have wondered about how much sense it really makes to go to the expense of having seismic retrofitting performed on their homes or buildings. Some wonder how much good this type of retrofitting will do, especially against a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event.

After years of serious research, the writer can only give the following answer. If Cascadia cuts loose with its worst, and if your home or building is in just the wrong place, it does not appear that much will be able to stand up against the seismic onslaught.

On the other hand, if your home or building happens to be in a more seismically protected location and Cascadia does not dish out its worst, possibly the proper type of seismic retrofitting may then be of some value.

There is one other thing to consider. If a seismic retrofitter claims that their retrofit can help protect your home or structure in the event of a major earthquake, there may be more to the story. A major earthquake is one with a magnitude from 7.0 to 7.9.(1)(2)

Estimates for the coming Cascadia earthquake indicate a magnitude of about 9.0 or greater. A quake of this size falls under the classification of a "great earthquake," rather than merely a "major earthquake." It is said that a quake classed as a great earthquake "can totally destroy communities near the epicenter."(3)(4) So, it is the writer's opinion that it may be worth your while to think further on how you really want to spend your money.




WISE  USE  OF  TIME  AND  MONEY

It is the writer's personal opinion that people could possibly spend their money and time for more logical things than seismic retrofitting. He believes that now is the time to spend a reasonable amount of your money preparing for basic survival.

The degree of survival skills and equipment required will all depend on what Cascadia dishes out. And, if the worst does not happen, then be happy and have a good day. Your skills and equipment are part of your "insurance policy," which can also be used in many other situations.




A  DISCLAIMER

Throughout this discussion and document, the writer simply presents his opinion and the findings of his research. How and what the reader does to prepare for the seismic events which lie ahead are purely up to them. The bottom line is this. You are responsible for yourself. The writer takes no responsibility, in any manner, for you or your actions, or lack thereof. copy expectcascadia.txt expectcascadia.htm




A  GEOLOGIC  REASON



LUCK  OF  THE  DRAW ?

During a massive earthquake, one structure may be utterly devastated, while another similar structure not far away escapes relatively unscathed. A structure relatively close to the epicenter of a quake may receive relatively little damage, while one further away receives very extensive damage. This may be puzzling to many people.

Generally, it depends on ground makeup below and around a structure, which determines how much shaking and damage that structure will receive. It also depends on the ground makeup and structure of the geology further beneath the surface. Certain geologic features may tend to focus earthquake waves strongly on one locale, or a variety of locales, while somewhat shielding other locales.




SOIL  TYPE  AND  MAGNIFICATION

The article linked here states, "Much depends on the type of soil a structure is built on. Wet, sandy soils --- like most of the lowland Longview-Kelso area --- tend to magnify shock waves and make structures on them more prone to collapse from shaking or liquefaction, which occurs when shaking turns water-saturated ground into quicksand."

It should be noted that the Longview-Kelso area is not the only place facing this problem. Many areas around Portland and Seattle are built on fill materials. Then there are places like Warrenton and Hammond, on the Oregon Coast, which have residential areas build on filled-in swamp land, with a water table which is very near the surface. In a massive Cascadia earthquake, these areas may virtually turn into quicksand.




BASIN  SHAPE  AND  EFFECTS

The USGS webpage linked below declares: "The Puget Sound is lined with a string of deep sediment-filled basins that will influence groundshaking during a large earthquake. Understanding the shapes of the basins is important to assessing the earthquake hazard potential of the region."


The webpage below is directed at the basin beneath Vancouver BC, but the same principals apply at other locales throughout the Cascadia region. The page declares that two studies "show that seismic waves are amplified as they pass through the Georgia Basin." It also states that "such amplification could make the ground quake three to four times more than it would if the basin were not there."


The page above presents an interesting concept. For a particular basin with a given shape, it depends on the direction from which the earthquake waves enter that basin, which can ultimately determine the degree of shaking and potential destruction at various locales within the basin.




CERTAIN  ASPECTS  OF  PORTLAND





PORTLAND,  SHAKING  LIKE  JELLO

In the book linked below, in the lower part of page 283, below the picture, is found the following: "In spite of the apparent lack of powerful quakes, a close look at maps of the subsurface beneath Portland and surrounding areas reveals a network of crisscrossing faults that could become active." The page also states: "It has been shown that rocks similar to those beneath Portland will shake like jello for a sustained period of time during and after a seismic event." Let us consider these words for a moment.

First, it is noted that there has been a "lack of powerful quakes" in the area. This may be true until a massive and devastating Cascadia seismic event cuts loose. It speaks of a "network of crisscrossing faults that could become active" beneath Portland. Yes, there is a potential that these "crisscrossing faults" could link up and add to the magnitude of a massive seismic event. The "linking up" of faults during a massive quake event --- to create and even larger magnitude and more devastating event --- will be discussed further, later in this report.

The book linked below speaks about the material beneath Portland "shaking like jello." For how long? Yes, "for a sustained period of time during and after a seismic event." And, just how long could this "sustained period of time" end up being? These are things which we should seriously consider about the Portland area. The potential length of the serious period of sustained shaking is considered later in this report. And, this very serious and potentially lengthy period of shaking is real life in the unique geology of Cascadia.






LOOKING  AT  A  FORUM

A forum, linked here, presents some interesting discussion. Scroll down about one-third of the way down the page to the following information, found in one of the comments: "A Cascadia event would produce constant ground swells and significant violent shaking lasting for 8-12 minutes..." The person then goes on to state that a USGS seismologist told them that "based on the current stress loads measured and historic trends a Cascadia event is predicted at a minimum of R=9.7..." The person goes on to state that they have "heard other geologists say the same."

Now, we must decide if the person noted above is just "blowing smoke." Or, on the other hand, we must consider if the potential actually exists in Cascadia for such a thing to happen. That is the purpose of this webpage. So, stick along for the ride and see what Cascadia potentially has in store for us.

Let us now consider the allegations apparently made by a USGS seismologist. First off, they are speaking of ground swells. That is like rising and falling swells on the ocean, but instead, in the ground. Then they are speaking of "significant violent shaking lasting for 8-12 minutes..." That may seem like an eternity of terror to those in the quake. But, the last part of the statement is the most concerning. The person spoke of a Cascadia event with "a minimum of R=9.7." This means a minimum of a 9.7 on the Richter scale of earthquakes.

Let us consider the "minimum of R=9.7" earthquake a bit further. Again, this is a minimum. This suggests that the potential is there for it to be much larger. If "crisscrossed faults" were to "link up" in the main quake event, the magnitude of the overall quake could be even much greater. Are we now speaking of the potential for experiencing the largest and most devastating earthquake ever instrumentally recorded and documented in history? Just stick along for the ride and we will see what the evidence and facts indicate.




EVEN  MORE  TO  THE  STORY

In the forum, linked here and in the section above, there are more things to consider about the Portland area. Let us now think about what was said, and then add to it even more of the story. First off, the forum spoke of "ground swells and significant violent shaking lasting for 8-12 minutes." So just how large of ground swells have been spoken of in the media?

An article, linked here, states: "The rattling will grow into a pulsing undulation that will repeatedly shove the ground up and down as much as 6 feet." Now, the picture in the article is based on a megaquake with epicenters located "75 miles off the Oregon coastline" and a magnitude "as high as 9.0 on the moment magnitude scale." But, there is more to this story.

Looking at the picture portrayed in the article linked above, and then looking at the forum linked further above, plus other information presented in this report, we really have some things to consider. Looking at epicenters, the information found in the following sections of this report: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6), point to evidence which indicates that the epicenters for the massive Cascadia megaquake may be located much closer to heavily populated urban areas, rather than about 75 miles off the Oregon coastline.

Information presented earlier in this report indicates that the epicenters may be "very near the population centers of Portland, Seattle and Vancouver [BC]." Information indicates that the epicenters may be "more than," yes, once again, "more than 60 kilometers [more than 37 miles] inland." This would place the epicenters more than 110 miles closer to major population centers than is commonly believed. Therefore, the magnitude of shaking and the size of ground waves experienced may be much greater than people are expecting. But, there is even more to consider.

In the previous section was noted a massive earthquake with a magnitude which is a "minimum of R=9.7." Couple that together with epicenters close to major cities. Now, how large could the ground waves in Portland and other cities be? Yes, think about that one for a while. But, once again, there is even more to the story.




"MARBLES"  UNDER  OUR  FEET ?

In the forum linked here and in the sections above, there is something to consider. Alameda ridge, in Portland, is mentioned as being a relatively safe place. This ridge extends to the west about 6 miles from Rocky Butte (which is located to the west of Interstate-205). The western extent of Alameda Ridge is near "15th Avenue and Skidmore Street." The northern margin of this ridge is at the lowlands on the south side of the Columbia River. More information about this ridge is given in the Wikipedia entry on 'Alameda Ridge,' which is linked here.

The Wikipedia entry notes that "Alameda Ridge is a large gravel bar..." This large gravel bar is made up of "large volumes of unconsolidated silt, sand, gravel, and boulders." Because of the rivers and other water in the Portland area, the water table within this structure may be somewhere near the the level of the surrounding rivers. It is very possible that the lower portion of the gravel bar extends a ways below the water table.

In a massive earthquake with a minimum magnitude of around 9.7, with "constant ground swells" --- possibly "up to 6 feet, or even more" --- and "significant violent shaking lasting for 8-12 minutes," what will things be like for this ridge "of unconsolidated silt, gravel, and boulders?"

In such a violent and long-lasting megaquake, could things be "rattled loose" in this ridge? Could terra firma temporarily be no more? Could this ridge of "unconsolidated silt, gravel, and boulders" become like numerous "marbles" under the feet or the foundations or structures of the locals? In such a violent earthquake, could this ridge lose height as it spreads laterally towards the north and south? But, again, there is more to consider.

Could this spreading effect be more pronounced if the ground was lubricated or, especially if it were heavily saturated with water from rainfall? Are there other areas in the Cascadia region which could be dealing with a similar situation? And then, there is potentially another option. An example of this option in noted in the section below.




EXAMPLES  OF  ANOTHER  OPTION

The massive New Madrid earthquake of 1811-1812 presented the United States with evidence of ground failures which, as noted in the first link below, "rank among the largest earthquake liquefaction and ground deformation fields ever documented..." Right from the very start, it should be noted that the Cascadia region has the potential for producing a much larger and more destructive earthquake than that which occurred in the New Madrid region.

Now, back to the New Madrid quake. The first link mentions the "destruction of extensive tracts of forests" and also "sunken forests." It speaks of "the horrible disorder of the trees which everywhere encountered each other, being blown up cracking and splitting, and failing by thousands at a time." It also mentions the "creation of sunkland lakes, primarily Reelfoot in Tennessee..."

The third link states that "an eighteen- to twenty-acre area near Piney River in Tennessee sank so low that the tops of the trees were at the same level as the surrounding ground. Whole forests sank below their original level and filled with water to form swamps and shallow lakes." The link then goes on to state: "The eighteen-thousand-acre Reelfoot Lake was either formed or enlarged during the 1811-12 earthquake episode."

The Wikipedia entry states: "According to the United States Geological Survey, Reelfoot Lake was formed when the region subsided during the 1811-12 New Madrid earthquakes. The earthquakes resulted in several major changes in the landforms over a widespread area with shocks being felt as far away as Quebec."






SINKING  LAND  AND  NEW  LAKES

Sinking land and the forming of many new bodies of water was one effect of the New Madrid earthquake. Considering the water around Portland and its water table, the same thing could potentially happen during a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event, but possibly on a much larger scale because Cascadia has the potential for producing a much larger earthquake.

What will be the ultimate fate of those large volumes of unconsolidated material which make up Alameda Ridge, in Portland? Only time will tell the truth on this matter. But, from a personal perspective after much research, the writer has no desire to live on Alameda Ridge. But, there is one more thing to note.

Alameda Ridge will not be the only formation composed of unconsolidated materials in the Pacific Northwest which could experience serious problems. There are areas in Seattle and Vancouver BC, and many other areas in the Cascadia region, which could experience similar problems on a large scale.




USGS  BULLETIN  494

Regarding the New Madrid earthquake, the 1912 USGS Bulletin declares: "The occurrence of such a shock in a region like the Mississippi Valley, on the borders of a great river, is probably unprecedented in the history of earthquakes. Many of the events of that convulsion were without a parallel." The same may be said for the Alameda Ridge and surrounding areas, for they, likewise, are situated "on the borders of a great river."

The USGS Bulletin states further: "Scientifically this earthquake may be regarded as a type, exhibiting in unusual detail the geologic effects of great disturbances upon unconsolidated deposits." What was that again? Did the page speak about "the geologic effects of great disturbances upon unconsolidated deposits?" Now, is not Alameda Ridge in Portland made up of "large volumes of unconsolidated silt, sand, gravel, and boulders?"


In all of this, there is one thing to consider. The New Madrid earthquake really tore up the land. But, it may be "just a baby" in comparison to what Cascadia can do, especially if it cuts lose with its full potential. In other words, if Cascadia cuts loose with its full potential, the torn up land by the New Madrid earthquake of 1811-1812 will utterly pale in comparison.




MORE  ABOUT  NEW  MADRID

Regarding the New Madrid earthquake, USGS Bulletin 494, linked here and above, on PDF page 23 of 129, states that in one town, "the people were awakened by the principal shock, which lasted 10 to 15 minutes." PDF page 34 of 129 speaks of people who "were thrown on the ground at almost every step."

There is something important to note on PDF page 45 of 129, of Bulletin 494. It states: "The fact that the people left their houses at the first shock and were in places of comparative safety when the later and more severe shocks came also has much to do with their escape." This information may be of value when considering a Cascadia event.




CONSIDERING  ALAMEDA  RIDGE  FURTHER

The forum, linked here and in sections further above, speaks of radon levels on Alameda Ridge. It indicates that in various parts of this ridge, the radon levels are "sky high." What does this indicate to the writer?

It appears that radioactive radon gas is potentially being vented from deep in the earth via the rift which appears to be buried below the continental landmass. This rift is the one which, many years ago, "fed" magma to the numerous volcanic vents in the Portland metro area (link), when the Portland region was an area of molten magma and smoking cinder cones (link). This deeply buried rift if also the one which "feeds" molten magma to the many volcanoes in the Cascade Mountains.

Again, the high levels of radon gas emitting from Alameda Ridge is just one more indicator of the giant, ancient rift which appears to now be buried deep below the continental landmass. This rift may be the geologic feature which initiates the next, very devastating Cascadia megaquake. There is reason to believe that the epicenters for the next Cascadia megaquake could possibly be very close to, or even under, major population centers along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.




SURVIVABILITY



SURVIVING  A  MEGAQUAKE

It is good to consider individual survivability, especially in the first half of a lengthy Cascadia megaquake discussion. If the full array of horrendous or gruesome highlights from past megaquake events are portrayed first, many could simply hit overload and "zone out." They may simply give up right away. They may carry things to the extreme and say to themselves, "What's the use of even preparing. I will be utterly devastated, no matter what."

The truth is this. During a megaquake event, it will generally be hard for everyone in the areas of major shaking. It should also be realized that even the best prepared individual could be killed, injured or seriously maimed during a megaquake. But there truly is more to consider. The vast majority of the population in a given region generally do survive megaquakes. For coastal lowlands, it is generally the tsunami which is of major concern.

With the proper knowledge and preparation, you will better know what to do when the massive shaking starts. You will also have a better chance of knowing what not to do, both during the quake and in its aftermath. By becoming educated and properly prepared, you may greatly increase your potential for long-term survival.




OTHER  MEGAQUAKES

As the survivability issue is considered, it is good to look at earlier megaquakes. During the Japanese megaquake event of 2011, the greatest loss of life resulted from the tsunami, not from the shaking itself. The same can be said for the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964. These things can be noted in the links below.


In other historic events, the collapse of unreinforced masonry buildings took a large toll. Yes, there are a number of ways which people have perished during large earthquakes. The link below presents statistics for devastating earthquakes since 1900.


Generally, the greater portion of the population can readily survive megaquakes with proper planning and preparation. That is the purpose of this report: to help you become educated and prepared, plus get you thinking, that you may be more likely to survive the next Cascadia megaquake, plus thrive in the aftermath.




SURVIVING  A  TSUNAMI

The webpage linked below presents important information on surviving a tsunami. The page speaks of "actions that saved lives, and actions that cost lives, as recounted by eyewitnesses to the tsunami from the largest earthquake ever measured, up to that time --- the magnitude 9.5 earthquake in Chile on May 22, 1960."

The page declares: "This report contains true stories that illustrate how to survive --- and how not to survive --- a tsunami. It is meant for people who live, work, or play along coasts that tsunamis may strike. Such coasts surround most of the Pacific Ocean but also include other areas, such as the shores of the Caribbean, eastern Canada, and the Mediterranean."






TSUNAMI  SURVIVAL  PODS

The concepts presented in the webpages linked below are some person's ideas of methods for potentially surviving a tsunami. Regarding these tsunami survival pods, the writer has a few things to say. If a person is living in a tsunami zone in which they are virtually guaranteed to die, one of these pods may be a good idea. The pod may increase your chances of survival, but it is not a guarantee of survival.

There is always a chance that one of these pods could actually get buried under a debris field. In such a case, there is a possibility that you may suffocate to death when the good air in the pod is used up. But, if you figure you are going to die anyway because of the hazard zone in which you live, possibly a chance at survival may be worth it. The choice and liability is up to the reader.

The pod noted in the buttons below has race-car-style seats, with race-car type harnessing systems. It should be noted that race drivers have survived some very nasty, high-speed wrecks when strapped into seat and harness units like these. Those with the proper skills and abilities, plus the necessary resources, could possibly build their own version of this type of pod.


The buttons below access information about "The Noah Capsule," which is another system intended for helping people toward surviving tsunamis. Once again, these types of systems may help increase a person's chance of survival, but they are not a guarantee of survival.

One problem the writer observes with the system below is that people are not securely strapped into this unit. They simply hang onto a pole in the center of the unit. If the unit is being severely smashed around, the people inside could take quite a beating as they slammed into one another, possibly even to the point of severe injury or death.





AN  IMPORTANT  NOTE  ABOUT  TSUNAMIS

The webpage from the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), linked here, is typical of many sources for Cascadia tsunami information found on the Internet. The page indicates that powerful Cascadia earthquakes  "can cause destructive tsunamis that can strike the coast between 10 and 30 minutes after the earthquake."

The webpage from 'Teachers on the Leading Edge,' linked here, speaks of the next Cascadia earthquake "with the resulting tsunami arriving onshore within 30 minutes." The webpage linked here declares: "When that earthquake hits, it's going to shake for a long time... Then guess what. You rode out the quake? Congratulations. Now you have 15 minutes to get above 50 feet of elevation. Fifteen minutes."

Let us now begin to look at some other information. The webpage linked below, copyright by the Seismological Society of America, presents information about the massive M9.2 earthquake which devastated portions of Alaska in 1964. The earthquake was "initiated 12 km beneath Prince William Sound." The page also declares: "No one was expecting this earthquake that would radically alter the coastal landscape..."

Now it is time to get very real. There is something extremely important to note on the linked page. It states: "Brief travel times on the shore side of the earthquake, coupled with local tsunami sources, conspired to create events that eluded warning. Towns such as Whittier were swept by tsunami waves before the rupture had even finished."


In the 1964 Alaska earthquake, people in certain coastal areas did not have 10 to 30 minutes to evacuate to higher ground, after the shaking stopped. They were already hit by the devastating tsunami  before the shaking even stopped. The webpage, linked above, indicates that "massive splay faults" were a factor which helped create the devastating tsunami which overran coastal towns while the ground was shaking during the initial earthquake.




IN  CASCADIA

Before splay faults in the Cascadia region are considered, there is another important issue to discuss which pertains to survival during a massive Cascadia earthquake event.

The geology in Cascadia is very unique and has the potential for producing earthquakes of a different nature than are experienced at other locales around the Pacific Ring of Fire. Furthermore, each earthquake in a given area can be different than its predecessors. Tsunamis also can be different. Therefore, in coastal regions, it may be best not to plan on having 10 to 30 minutes to get to higher ground, after the initial shaking stops in a Cascadia event.

It is time to put forth some personal opinions. The best option in a low-lying coastal setting, during a Cascadia event, may be to head for high ground at the first sign of ground shaking. In regards to higher ground, one other important issue needs to be addressed. A number of sources make it appear that ground at 50 feet of elevation is safe. It is time to rethink this matter.

According to sources linked here and here, it appears that some of the tsunami waves could potentially reach a height of up to 100 feet, or possibly even a bit higher. The landmass along the coast could also subside or sink many feet during the earthquake, possibly making a simple 50 foot increase in elevation an unsafe and deadly choice.

It is generally better to be safe than sorry, when it comes to surviving a tsunami in Cascadia. Therefore, head for the highest ground possible as you work to escape the trunami, preferrably to ground of much more than 100 feet in elevation. The higher you get, the better your chances of survival during a Cascadia event. Becoming airborne, if possible, may be even better. But, you must be able to stay airborne for potentially an extended period of time.




SPLAY  FAULTS



INTRODUCTION  TO  SPLAY  FAULTS

It is now time to consider splay faults, such as those which helped produce the devastating tsunami which struck certain areas of coastal Alaska in 1964, while the earth was still shaking from the initial M9.2 quake. Yes, it is very important to note that under certain conditions, a destructive tsunami can come crashing ashore while the earth is still shaking.

The webpage, linked here, presents information about splay fault activity which occurred during the 2010, M8.8 earthquake in central Chile. It declares: "Splay faults, large thrust faults emerging from the plate boundary to the seafloor in subduction zones, are considered to enhance tsunami generation by transferring slip from the very shallow dip of the megathrust onto steeper faults, thus increasing vertical displacement of the seafloor."

The webpage linked here accesses Chapter 5 in a book titled 'The Tsunami Threat - Research and Technology.' The document states: "Here, in this chapter we focus on splay faults which are known as one of the important secondary tsunami sources and were responsible for a large part of tsunami deaths during past tsunamis.
        "Splay faults, sometimes known as imbricate faults, are steeply-dipping thrust faults which branch upward from the subduction zone to the seafloor. As splay faults often have steep dip angles, they are capable of producing large seafloor deformation which can significantly increase tsunami runup heights in the near-field."




ILLUSTRATIONS

The links here, here, here, here and here illustrate splay faults. It is important to note in the last illustration that splay faults can appear as slumps along the continental slope.




CASCADIA  FAILURES  AND  SLUMPS

The webpage linked below states that "numerous, often overlapping failures, including two super-scale slumps in the southern Oregon margin, may have had the capacity to produce very large tsunamis..."

Could the "overlapping failures" and "two super-scale slumps" on the Oregon continental slope have anything to do with splay faults? The page also states that "offshore Oregon, most of the landslides occur on slopes over 15°" and that "the failures on the steeper slopes tend to produce larger tsunamis."





LESSONS  FROM  THE  1964  ALASKA  EARTHQUAKE

As the situation in the Cascadia region is considered, plus the degree of tsunami hazard, let us see what can be learned from the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The webpage, linked further above, indicates that splay faulting was a causal factor for the local tsunamis which inundated certain towns in coastal Alaska, while the earthquake shaking was still going on. The page also states: "Many communities hit with local tsunamis were struck again as the tectonic tsunami, bolstered by the rising tide, wove into bays and coves over the next many hours."

Is there a remote possibility that the unique geology in the Cascadia region could allow for something similar to occur at certain places along the coastal areas of Oregon, Washington and southwestern British Columbia? Could there be any splay faulting associated with a Cascadia event which could trigger "locally sourced tsunamis," while the shaking is still ongoing? In most cases, we may find out the truth --- unfortunately --- after the fact.




CASCADIA  EVENT



WHAT  WILL  IT  BE  LIKE ?

What type of scenario are the pros expecting during the next major Cascadia megaquake? What will it be like for those living through the devastating megaquake and the giant tsunami which follows? Then, there is another thing to consider. What will it be like if the initial epicenters for the megaquake are much closer to large population centers than previously thought?

The articles, documents and videos linked in the sections below attempt to describe what it will be like, based on earlier megaquakes. There is only one thing we can all ask. "Is the picture which the pros are presenting completely accurate, or is the geologic situation in Cascadia somewhat different and unique from other subduction-zone regions around the world?

This brings up another question. Could any differences in geology, especially any major differences, allow for a more devastating nature of megaquake to occur in Cascadia? Is it possible that a full potential Cascadia megaquake could be much worse than those experienced at other subduction-zone regions around this world?"

Again, what will it be like during a Cascadia megaquake? The webpage linked below (from 2010 and updated 2011) presents some good, basic preliminary information about what megaquakes have been like. It also has links to videos. It is worthwhile considering, as we search for the truth about megaquakes: especially a Cascadia-style of megaquake.


The webpage accessed via the button below examines what life may be like after a Cascadia megaquake. The article starts with these words: "Two years after Japan was rocked by the same type of monster quake and tsunami that will strike the Pacific Northwest someday, the world's most seismically fortified nation faces another five to 10 years of rebuilding."

The page also declares: "The economic impact of a magnitude 9.0 quake on the offshore fault called the Cascadia Subduction Zone is estimated at $49 billion in Washington and $32 billion in Oregon."


At this point, more questions need to be asked. What would be the effect if the initial epicenters for the megaquake are not on the offshore fault, but rather more than 37 miles inland, where some new models indicate? What would be the economic impact of a devastating M9.0-plus earthquake which had epicenters much nearer or even within the large population centers of the Cascadia region?




IMPORTANT  INFRASTRUCTURE



DAMAGE  TO  UTILITIES

The following are excerpts from the webpage linked here and above. "...It could take one to three months to restore power supplies to 70 percent of normal..." "Fixing toppled transmission towers could take up to three years." "Water supplies and sewage treatment will be disrupted for weeks to months." "Phone lines and Internet service won't be back to normal for one to three months. With no power, people won't be able to withdraw cash from ATMs."

In the event of a full-potential Cascadia earthquake event, possibly the time-frames noted above may be leaning a bit toward the wishful thinking side. And, that is only part of the story.

The webpage linked below considers damage to the water system in cities like Portland and declares: "Your faucets (and toilets) will be dry for weeks, maybe months... Reservoirs will crack; treatment facilities and pump stations will fail." As a result, there will be "a total loss of water pressure - both for drinking and for putting out fires." And, to make matters worse, "sewers will fail." This is a rather bleak picture, but it still may be based on a very conservative estimate. Only time will tell the truth on this matter.

The article below figures it could be one year before you have a flushing toilet. Considering the lack of flushing toilet and working sinks, plus lack of running water, life may be extremely primitive after the megaquake. That primitive life may require the use of some very basic survival skills for weeks, months, or even years.


There are other very important issues to consider in all of this. If the sewers are not working, there will be serious sanitation issues. There may also be a problem with dead bodies, as has occurred in other devastating events. This could all lead to serious health issues, plus disease and the rampant spread of disease by vermin.




EMERGENCY  SERVICES  AND  ROADS

The webpage linked here and above declares that "restoring full communications will take up to three months." And, if the Cascadia event were to occur during an extended winter of deep snow, it could take much longer to repair communication systems. The 911 emergency system may not be just a quick call away, for even an extended period of time. And truly, what may emergency crews, and anyone else for that matter, be dealing with as they attempt to get to their intended destination?

The page above states: "Hillsides will slide. Buildings will collapse. Roads will buckle." A number of bridges "will likely collapse. So will ramps leading to just about all the bridges." And those bridges which do not collapse may be severely damaged or impassable. Many roads may be blocked by slides and rubble from collapsed buildings. Yes, it will be an utter mess for anyone trying to get somewhere, especially in a hurry. And, in life-threatening situations, every second counts.

In order to get anywhere, people will travel "by foot, bike, and boat, mostly." The experts believe that "people will be stuck where they are for quite some time." And yes, without television or the Internet for an extended period of time, or possibly even phone service. Many may feel that they are suddenly cut off from the world.




THE  POWER  GRID

The webpage linked here and a few sections above, indicates there may be serious damage to the electrical grid. It could be a number of months before electricity is restored in many areas. That means you may be without electrical power for an extended period of time, possibly even in the dead of winter. This means that in your home or business, many things will not be working for possibly a long time. Let us consider how this may effect our basic way of doing things.

With the electricity off, refrigerators and freezers will not work. During times with outside temperatures above freezing, that means frozen foods will need to be eaten relatively quickly or they may spoil. Perishable foods in refrigerators must also be quickly used or they will spoil. The lights will not be working. The heating and air conditioning systems will not be working, so things could get uncomfortable, especially in the dead of winter. The clothes washer and dryer will not work without electricity. Yes, people may be reduced to a very primitive lifestyle.

Only those with an emergency electrical generator of the proper size, plus a sustainable fuel supply for their generator, will have the ability to provide for their basic electrical needs. If the electrical system in their residence or building is not damaged, they may have lights, heat and air conditioning. Their refrigerator and freezer may operate properly. But, they still may be without phone and Internet service for an extended period of time. Only if they have alternative radio communications available, such as amateur radio or similar systems, will they be able to notify others of their situation, especially if it is life-threatening.




IMPORTANCE  OF  SELF  SUFFICIENCY



A  SUSTAINABLE  FUEL  SUPPLY

The section above mentions emergency electrical generators and the need for a sustainable fuel supply. The fuel supply issue must seriously be considered, because after a megaquake, the local filling station may not be operating for an extended period of time. The regional fuel supply depots could also be devastated and their fuel products lost, as noted in a later section of this report. What limited fuel supplies the depots have left will assuredly be allotted to the emergency effort, rather than to use by private citizens.




BIOFUEL  GENERATION

To have a sustainable fuel supply, a person may need to be capable of producing their own fuel. Engine-driven generators can readily be fueled by methane from a biofuel generator. The raw materials necessary to produce a usable fuel in a biofuel generator are usually readily available during and after a major disaster. Biofuel generators are discussed in more detail in the left-margin information. There are also links to additional information relating to this subject.

In relation to biofuel production, there is another issue to consider. After a Cascadia megaquake, sewer systems and toilets may not be operating properly, if at all. This brings up a major sanitation issue. But, for at least some, there is a remedy.

With the proper type of alternative fuel system, virtually all types of manure can be used to produce valuable methane gas for fueling an electrical generator and/or heating and cooking systems. With the proper setup, two serious problems can be solved at once. Possibly the time to get converted over to a system like this would be prior to a major Cascadia event.




WOOD  GAS  GENERATOR

Another method for producing a sustainable fuel supply, which can operate an electrical generator, is by the use of a wood gas generator. After a major natural disaster, wood debris for producing the fuel to operate a generator (or a water distiller or heating unit) is usually readily available. Wood gas generators are also discussed in more detail further up in the left-margin information.




AUTHOR'S  TECHNOLOGY

A technology which has the potential for effectively extending your fuel supply, plus for increasing the efficiency of your engine-driven electrical generator, is noted further up in the left-margin information. This technology also has the potential for giving your engine system multi-fuel capabilities.

Information about the author's combined-cycle combustion-steam technology is presented in much greater detail in many reports found on another of the author's sites. These reports are found in the Website Report Index, linked here. Scan down through the Index, and see what all is there.




SOLAR  AND  WIND  POWER

In the aftermath of a Cascadia megaquake, solar or wind power may be two viable options. Some things to remember are: solar systems are generally not producing when the sun is not shining, and wind systems are not producing when the wind is not blowing. Both of these systems would need some backup or storage system, whether battery or otherwise, for when there is no output from the power producer.

Solar and wind may be okay for many, but a residential size unit does have its limitations. For extended periods of heavy power draw, like when running large volume water distillers or heating and air conditioning units, it may be hard to beat a generator using alternative fuels. Yes, there are a number of things to consider when designing and building either wind or solar systems, or some other type of energy system, for the Cascadia region.

More information is presented about wind and solar energy in the left-margin, along with links to other valuable information. It should also be noted that any alternative power system will need to be built to withstand a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event.




AHEAD  OF  THE  CURVE

Those who are already living "off the grid" are ahead of the general public in the electrical arena. Their life will be somewhat closer to normal, as long as their electrical production systems and water sources have not been seriously damaged by the earthquake.




COMMUNICATIONS

After a massive Cascadia megaquake event, it is likely that cell phone communications will not be functioning for a period of time. Normal landline telephone may also be non-operational. The regional Internet system may also be out of commission, possibly for an extended period of time. For this reason, it is wise to have alternate communication systems available, especially to report emergencies.

Those with direct two-way radio communications, especially with longer distance amateur radio (ham radio) communications, will not feel so cut off from the world. This is noted in the article linked below, regarding communications in the aftermath of the devastating M7.0 Haiti earthquake in 2010. In this quake, 230,000 or more people perished (link). Those with direct two-way radio communications have the capability of communicating their survival and their emergency needs to other parties, especially if the 911 emergency system is non-functional.

The article states: "When other systems don't work, radio always works. It doesn't matter --- no matter where you are in the world --- you can get a high-frequency signal out and somebody will hear." Amateur Radio allows for reliable local or regional communication, plus opens the potential for international communication when using the proper equipment.


The page linked below states: "With any natural disaster, communication can often become a matter of life and death, and if phone lines are broken and cell towers crumble, relaying messages to the outside world and coordinating rescue efforts becomes that much more difficult."

Regarding the massive Nepal earthquake, the page states: "After the quake, which shook cities in India as well as Nepal, volunteer ham radio operators from India traveled to the region to relay messages from areas whose communications infrastructure is broken or overloaded. Ham radio, also called amateur radio, is a means of sending and receiving messages over a specific radio frequency, and it is often used in disaster situations because it operates well off the grid; transceivers can be powered by generators and set up just about anywhere."


The webpages linked below present more information on the importance of ham radio in the event a a major earthquake. This is especially true if the disaster puts other forms of communication out of commission.



For shorter range communications, generally from one to fifteen miles, Citizen Band (CB) radios are another option, as noted part way down in the page about Emergency Communications, linked here. Handheld units may be very convenient for mobile communication within an area of devastation. Family Radio Service (FRS) communication units, as well as General Mobil Radio Service (GMRS) units are also noted in the previous link.

Further information about emergency communications is accessed via the buttons below. One important thing to note is that virtually all of these communication systems require some form of electrical power to operate. For many units, some form of battery charger is required, so keep this in mind. An alternative power source may be required for extended or continued operation.





A  NEED  FOR  CLEAN  WATER

The webpage linked below states: "If you're ever stuck out in the wilderness, remember what survival experts call 'the Rule of Threes'. You can live 3 minutes without air... In a harsh environment...you have 3 hours to survive without shelter. After 3 days, you need water or you'll perish. You can make it 3 weeks without food, though we promise you that won't be fun."

Regarding the previous statement about surviving three weeks without food, the author must make an important comment. Using the proper fasting techniques, the author has gone over one month without food. So have many other people. But, there is a lot to consider when going for extended periods without food. Among these are such things as overall health condition, plus medications currently and formerly used. All of these factors, and more, affect how a person can handle and survive for an extended period of time without food. Now, back to the water issue.


The webpage linked below is about emergency water storage. It states: "Water Storage is important. Having an ample supply of safe, clean, purified water is a top priority in an emergency." It states further: "A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers and ill people will need even more."

The page below indicates that "a quart of water or other fluid daily will sustain life." Yes, that is the bare minimum to just barely support life. The page states: "Store a total of at least one gallon per person, per day. You should store at least a two-week supply of water for each member of your family."





A  WATER  DISTILLER

With the level of devastation expected during and after a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event, it will not be just a quick trip down to the local store for a bottle or jug of water. Any bottled water there, which may have survived the quake and its aftermath, will be gone extremely fast, possibly in a matter of minutes. There may even be fights erupting over any remaining water, as shown in the article linked here. It should be noted that this fight over water, in the linked article, occurred when people were not even in dire staits.

In the midst of an extremely chaotic and devastating event, especially when people's lives are in the balance, who knows what people may turn into: especially once they realize that law enforcement is not just a quick call away.

To make things much easier during and after an emergency situation, a small water distillation plant may be very important. Those with a sustainable fuel supply for operating a distillation plant can even recycle their water, using the proper techniques.

There are also relatively simple solar distillation units, which can be made by skilled individuals. Information on emergency and survival, solar water distillers may be found on the Internet. Those who have their own water distillation system may actually be doing fairly well, considering all things, after a Cascadia megaquake event.




BASIC  SURVIVAL  SKILLS

In the aftermath of a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event, our surroundings could be radically changed. Our surroundings may be far different from that which we are accustomed. For that reason, some very basic and primitive survival skills may come in very handy, and possibly could even save our life and the lives of those we care about.

Just a few references to information on survival skills will be given here. The Reader is encouraged to do further research on their own, plus obtain proper instruction in these skills. For an introduction, a basic Wikipedia entry on survival skills is linked here.

The button below accesses a webpage with links to information on numerous books relating to survival. This information could readily apply to a Cascadia megaquake event.


The buttons below access additional information on basic survival skills. Check through all of these links and determine what might work best for you in your particular situation. Then, for those with a further interest, do a search on the Internet for more information and videos on the subject of survival skills.





NAVIGATING  WITH  A  WATCH

Supposing you are needing to navigate after a Cascadia event in a terrain which has been changed and looks completely unfamiliar. Yes, you would most likely want a compass to help guide you in the general direction which you want to go. But, what if for some reason you have lost or do not have a compass. What are you going to do?

For those with an analog watch or an analog clock which is set to the correct time, there is hope. Or, for those who can readily visualize an analog clock-face and who know the correct time, there is also hope. For those who can see the sun, there is complete hope. There is a way to use this information to discern which direction is south.

Using a horizontal clock face, line the hour hand up with the sun. Now, in the Northern Hemisphere, half way between the hour hand and the 12:00 position on the dial would line up with the direction south. In the Southern Hemisphere, it would indicate north. This process is explained more fully in the webpages linked below.






THE  BIGGER  PICTURE



MIND  BOGGLING

There are many serious things to consider in relation to a devastating megaquake in the Cascadia region, especially if the initial epicenters happen to be relatively close to urban areas. At this point, our minds could already be hitting overload, as we consider the magnitude and the implications of the individual pieces.

It is understandable if an individual has a hard time grasping and seeing the full Cascadia picture all at once. It has taken the writer a number of years of research to "piece together" the picture here presented. It is a large, very complex picture. But, we are not done yet. We have only considered the preliminary round and some of its more obvious effects. There is actually much more to the Cascadia story.




DANGEROUS  SLIDES

Hillsides can slide and cause damage, destruction and loss of life, even under typical circumstances when no large earthquakes are happening.

Linked below is information regarding the deadly Oso, Washington landslide in 2014. This slide was almost a mile wide and "engulfed 49 homes and other structures... It also dammed the river, causing extensive flooding upstream as well as blocking State Route 530." This slide, which killed 43 people, occurred during what otherwise would have been a typical Saturday morning.



Linked below are pictures of the slide.

(Aerial view)     (Before and after views)     (Another before and after)     (View from toe of slide)    
(Engulfed and displaced buildings)     (View from across the valley)    

Excessive rainfall was a factor in the Oso landslide, as noted in the Wikipedia entry above. But, during a massive Cascadia megaquake event, intense ground shaking for many minutes can readily dislodge even hillsides which are not heavily saturated by rainfall. During a Cascadia megaquake event, the damage and loss of life from landslides may be greatly increased.




FURTHER  LANDSLIDE  INFORMATION

The first button below accesses information about an M6.7 earthquake which resulted in a number of landslides. The webpage declares: "Landslides set off by the quake proved to be the most deadly feature of the disaster."

The page accessed by the second button declares: "Landslides triggered by earthquake shaking are a major concern in the Pacific Northwest." The page also states: "A recent study suggests the next big quake on the Seattle fault may cause devastating damage from landslides, greater than previously thought and beyond the areas currently defined as prone to landslides."





SOIL  LIQUEFACTION

One of the pages accessed below speaks of "a phenomenon called liquefaction where sandy soil turns to liquid and loses its ability to support weight." During a massive earthquake, liquified soil can cause buildings, bridges and other structures to sink or be pulled apart. Liquifaction can also result in damage to utilities. Under certain circumstances, liquefaction may even cause people to sink in a manner similar to being in quicksand.

Check out the pages linked below and become informed about the phenomenon of liquefaction. It likely is something which will be occurring in many places during the next full-potential Cascadia earthquake event. It is possibly something which many people will be dealing with, as they plan their escape routes.











The links below access pictures which give at least some idea of liquefaction damage which can readily happen to buildings and other structures.

(Leaning and fallen multi-story buildings)     (Tilted building by liquefaction)     (Tipped-over building)    
(Sinking residential building)     (Tipped and sunken multi-story building)     (Sunken pickup)    

In the Cascadia region, there are many areas which will be prone to liquefaction. As a result, there will be a considerable amount of building and infrastructure damage.




DESTRUCTIVE  AFTERSHOCKS

The webpage linked below declares: "Scientists are warning residents of Vancouver and other cities in earthquake zones to take heed of new evidence that megaquake aftershocks can pose a great danger for years, even hundreds of kilometres from the epicentre of the original earthquake."

It should be noted that aftershocks, especially if they are centered closer to the surface, can often cause even greater damage than deeper centered, higher magnitude main quakes. Powerful aftershocks can readily cause buildings, bridges and other structures to collapse. They may also create new slides, which can bury things and cause further damage. These later casualties may originally have been loosened or damaged by the initial quake.

The page below declares: "Aftershocks just one magnitude smaller than their main shock are common, and there is a small probability that an aftershock will be larger than its main shock." With the unique and complex geology in the Cascadia region, this is definitely something to consider.


As an addendum to the statement above, about an aftershock being larger than the main shock, the USGS webpage linked here declares: "...If an 'aftershock' is bigger than its 'main shock', we change the names and call the first one the foreshock and the large 'aftershock' becomes the main shock." So, naming the quakes during an event is relative and subject to change.




MORE  TO  THE  STORY ?

There may actually be more to consider in the Cascadia story. There are things which could have a great effect on the ultimate outcome of a regional megaquake. These other things may have an effect on the "known" or commonly spoken about geologic features below the ground in Cascadia.

Once again, some questions need to be asked. Is there more to the story of the geologic structure which is actually below our feet in Cascadia, than is being presented in the popular media? Is there something else, possibly even something major like a giant concealed rift, which is being dealt with in this region, which is not being spoken of in the common media and scientific reports?




GEOLOGIC  FINDINGS



SOMETHING  "STARTLING"  EMERGES

The article linked below declares: "Once overlooked because of its relative inactivity compared to other subduction zones around the world, the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) --- and the potentially devastating megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis it could unleash --- are today well known to both geoscientists and the public."

The article indicates that geologists' understanding of Cascadia is constantly changing. As one stated, there is "a paradigm change every few years." That same geologist also declared: "And just when we think we have nothing startling left to learn about this subduction zone, something 'startling' emerges."


What will the scientists ultimately learn about Cascadia, in the days ahead? Could they find that, especially deeper portions of it are far different, geologically, than they ever expected? Could they find another major component in the deeper geology of Cascadia: one that, for one reason or another, they never expected or realized existed up to this point? Could this other component have a great effect on the characteristics and final outcome of the next devastating megaquake event?




STRONGLY  LOCKED

The last paragraph in the webpage linked below declares: "The CSZ may be unique among the world's subduction zones in that it produces very few (if any) earthquakes unambiguously on the plate interface. Coupled with evident occurrence of great megathrust earthquakes, the CSZ must be much more strongly locked than other subduction faults."


Yes, at this time the Cascadia Subduction Zone appears to be strongly locked. It appears that Cascadia does not waste energy on little quakes, for it does not appear to have that capability, partly because of its deeper, unique geology. It appears that the continental landmass is bridging over an ancient rift, therefore, this "locked" system is steadily accumulating stress, as it prepares to unleash a devastating megaquake.




UNLIKE  ALL  OTHERS

The webpage linked below speaks about devastating earthquakes and tsunamis which have occurred at other subduction zones in recent years. Then it states: "The Cascadia Subduction Zone has remained locked, loaded, and quiet through all this tumult. It does not even produce the small earthquakes so prevalent in other subduction zones around the world. The Cascadia Subduction Zone behaves differently than all other subduction zones on the planet."


Cascadia "behaves differently than all other subduction zones on the planet," because its fundamental geology beneath the landmass may be far different than that at any other subduction zone on this planet. This fundamental difference in geology is why Cascadia is strongly locked and loaded, and why it only unleashes massive megaquakes.




ONLY  BIG  ONES

The page linked below declares: "Unlike other subduction zones around the world, the interface fault in Cascadia appears to break almost exclusively only in great earthquakes and not also via moderate and small earthquakes."


Once again, the geologic evidence indicates that the Cascadia Subduction Zone only produces devastating megaquakes. The geologic records do not show many smaller quakes associated with this zone. There truly is a reason for this, which is noted further above and in the next section below.

Concerning the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan, the page linked below declares: "The Cascadia fault line, which runs from southern Canada all the way to Northern California, could have much stronger ground-motions than those observed in Japan."





WHY  IT'S  SO  STRONGLY  LOCKED

Once again, the Cascadia region has a track record for experiencing only massive earthquakes for a reason. It is because the rift system which often triggers these massive quakes is strongly locked. Now, in what manner is it locked? Once again, it appears that the continental landmass is actually "bridging over" an ancient, deeply buried rift system. What does this mean? It appears that the continental landmass acts as a weak weld, or a detent which works to hold both sides of the rift together.

When the steadily building geologic stress gets high enough, which can take hundreds of years, the impediment created by the detent or "weld" is suddenly overcome and a massive earthquake occurs as plates slide violently past each other. There is actually quite a story behind what created the geologic situation we are now dealing with in the Cascadia region. More about that issue at another time.




TRIGGERING  THE  WEST  COAST ?

The Wikipedia entry, linked below, declares: "Other similar subduction zones in the world usually have such [great] earthquakes every 100 to 200 years; the longer interval here [in Cascadia] may indicate unusually large stress buildup and subsequent unusually large earthquake slip."

The Wikipedia entry provides another interesting tidbit of information. It declares: "Studies of past earthquake traces on both the northern San Andreas Fault and the southern Cascadia subduction zone indicate a correlation in time which may be evidence that quakes on the Cascadia subduction zone may have triggered most of the major quakes on the northern San Andreas during at least the past 3,000 years or so."





A  NEW  WORLD  RECORD ?

What will be the full extent of the next Cascadia megaquake and how long could the complete event last? Again, no human knows for sure. There are just too many variables. But, because of the unique geology beneath Cascadia and the manner in which the fault zone is strongly locked, it appears the potential is there for one incredible earthquake or a period of destructive earthquakes.

Up to this point, the largest instrumentally documented earthquake in recorded history occurred near Valdivia, Chile on May 22, 1960 (link). This record earthquake "was assigned a magnitude of 9.5 by the United States Geological Survey." The linked page states: "The earthquake was preceded by four foreshocks greater than magnitude 7.0. The largest was a magnitude 7.9 earthquake one day before that caused significant damage in the Concepcion area."

Every massive earthquake is unique in its characteristics. At this point, some questions need to be asked. Because of the unique geology beneath the Cascadia region and because of the manner in which the fault zone is strongly locked, will the magnitude and duration of the next full-potential Cascadia event produce a new world record? Will geologists and seismologists once again have a paradigm shift in their thinking, after the fact?




MIMA  MOUNDS

In the Puget Lowlands (link), to the west of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, resides an area with a rather interesting topography. This area is called Mima Mounds (link). Pictures of the Mima Mounds area are linked here, here, here and here. Details of mound size and composition are linked here. A blog by a geologist examining the cross-sectional makeup of these mounds is linked here. A short video clip panning Mima Mounds is linked here.

As usual, when people don't understand something, many strange or diverse theories can spring up. There has been an ongoing debate about what mechanism created these numerous, rather unusual mounds. Some of the theories are noted in the links which follow.   (Gopher Pyramids),   (Termites or Gophers),   (Mystify Scientists...Aliens),   (Created by Plants).   Yes, the theories run all over the place, and now the crowd is back running after the gopher theory.

Once the geology beneath the Interstate-5 freeway corridor is better understood, the mechanism which caused Mima Mounds may become more clear. A potential mechanism which created the mounds is considered further in the right-hand side-bar of this webpage, at the level accessed via this link. Further information about the geology deep beneath the Interstate-5 freeway corridor may be presented on another report in this site.

The author believes the mounds fit nicely into the Cascadia megaquake scenario, once the nature of these events is understood better. He also believes the existence of the mound structures at this locale gives more support to the probability of Cascadia megaquake main epicenters traversing the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, rather than traveling far offshore at the so-called subduction zone. They may also be an indicator of the magnitude of shaking attained during a full-rip Cascadia megaquake event, in the area surrounding the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.




UNKNOWN  VARIABLES



A  DIFFERENT  SITUATION

Once again, does the unique geologic situation in the Pacific Northwest add other variables, possibly very important variables, into the mix: variables which are not commonly understood? Could these other variables create a situation which produces a final outcome which differs greatly from that at other subduction zones on this earth?

Is there a chance that the seismic picture which the pros have been presenting for years may actually prove to be a serious understatement of that which the Pacific Northwest and Southwest Canada will experience during the next full-potential Cascadia megaquake event? We can speculate this way and that way on theories, but, we may all know the answers to these questions in the days and years ahead.

The unique set of geologic variables which have an effect on the characteristics of a megaquake in the Pacific Northwest region will be examined more fully in another report in this website. This current report mainly considers what a Cascadia megaquake will be like, from the pros point of view, and ways to best prepare for survival.




DOES  ANYONE  KNOW  FOR  SURE ?

Does anyone truly know what to expect during a Cascadia megaquake? Does anyone have a true picture of the magnitude and devastation of a full-scale Cascadia event, especially if the epicenters are further inland and relatively close to urban centers? Do even the pros know for sure, what it will actually be like?

The article linked below declares: "We do not fully understand the limits of what can happen," says Thorne Lay, a seismologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz. "We have to be broadly prepared to respond."

There can be very unusual and unexpected geologic events which occur during subduction zone megaquakes, some of which will be noted in the section which follows. Some of these are also noted in the article below. Could it be possible for people, even for the scientists, to be completely "blind-sided" by the characteristics of the next, full-scale Cascadia megaquake event?






TAKEN  BY  SURPRISE

The article linked below notes surprising characteristics of other megaquakes which have occurred since 2004 and things scientists have learned with these new experiences. The following statements come, once again, from Thorne Lay, the seismologist at the University of California at Santa Cruz.

Mr. Lay declared: "What we've seen is that we can have multiple faults activated. We've seen it off Sumatra and off Japan. Once earthquakes get going they can activate faulting in areas that were thought not physically feasible." And again, "These earthquakes ruptured right through areas that had been considered to have low risk. We thought that would not happen. But it did, so we have to adjust our understanding."


The page linked below speaks of the Japanese earthquake which struck on Friday, 11 March 2011. Of the M9.0 quake, the page states: "A quake that large shouldn't have happened at Tohoku, at least not to the best of Japanese scientists' knowledge." But, surprise, surprise, it happened. It should be noted that part of the problem was this: scientists which knew something like this could happen were ignored, just as it is, plus will be in Cascadia.

The linked page states further: "Japan isn't alone. The incredibly destructive earthquakes that hit Wenchuan, China in 2008 and Christchurch, New Zealand in 2010 and 2011 all happened in areas deemed to be 'relatively safe'." So, it appears that the scientists, even with all of their high-tech, fancy equipment, are still missing it again and again. Is something majorly wrong with the way they are going about things? Are their expensive computerized seismic models flawed?


The scientific community appears to now need an adjustment of their understanding after almost each new megaquake event in recent times. Will it be any different with Cascadia, especially when considering its unique differences in overall geology from other subduction zones? Is there a chance that the high-tech scientists, once again, will find that their computerized models are seriously flawed and will have to adjust their seismic understanding, possibly even to a major extent?




EVEN  IN  JAPAN

Let us look further at the Japanese earthquake of 2011, and how scientists were totally blindsided. The page linked below declares that the epicenter of the M9.0 quake of March 11, 2011 was located "in a strip of ocean crust previously thought unlikely to be capable of unleashing such energy."

Wow! And all along, it appears that people have blindly been putting their faith in whatever the scientists declare. Possibly it is time for people to really wake up to reality and begin to research for themselves, plus take more responsibility for their future well-being. This should especially be true in the Cascadia region of North America.


As a further example of how scientists can be utterly taken by surprise, the 2012 article linked below declares: "One year after Japan's devastating Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, scientists are still trying to figure out how the world's most organized and earthquake-ready nation could have been taken so much by surprise. They were hit by an earthquake roughly 25 times more powerful than experts thought possible in that part of the country. How could the forecast have been so wrong?"

It is very important to note these words in the preceding paragraph. Look at them as many times as you need, until the meaning of them is completely fixed in your mind. These words speak about an earthquake which was "roughly 25 times more powerful than experts thought possible in that part of the country." Now, ask yourself the following question. Will it be any different for the coming Cascadia earthquake event?


The New York Times article, linked below, notes that prior to the devastating 2011 earthquake and tsunami, scientists thought things were relatively safe around the Fukushima area. Scientists thought the offshore fault could rupture periodically, "generating an earthquake around magnitude 7.5, perhaps up to magnitude 8.0." The article notes: "a government committee recently concluded that there was a 99 percent chance of a magnitude-7.5 earthquake in the next 30 years, and warned there was a possibility for an even larger magnitude-8.0 quake."

Instead of an M7.5 or M8.0, the Fukusima region experienced the devastating effects of an M9.0 earthquake. The article states that an M9.0 quake "releases about 30 times as much energy as a magnitude-8.0 quake. It was the largest ever recorded in Japan..." Dr. Shinji Toda, a professor of geology at Kyoto University in Japan, said: "I was surprised. Nobody expected magnitude 9."






THERE  WERE  THOSE  WHO  KNEW

At this point, let it be clearly noted that there were scientists who definitely knew beforehand that such a large earthquake and/or tsunami could occur. They spoke about it at least as far back as 2009, and others even earlier. Take for instance the Japanese geologist named Yasutaka Ikeda, who, at a conference in 2005, spoke about Japan experiencing an M9.0 in the near future. These things are spoken about in The New Yorker article, called The Really Big One, which is linked below.

The geologist, Yasutaka Ikeda, knew that Japan would be hammered by a massive earthquake, plus a tsunami which was far bigger than the scientific community was expecting. He also knew that Japan, even with its sea walls, was not properly prepared. The very height of its sea wall defence system was "based on incorrect science." Mr. Ikeda, because he cared about the safety of his people, gave his warning. But, he was largely ignored by the scientific community.



A well-known paleoseismologist from Oregon State University, Chris Goldfinger, also spoke about the Japanese geologist Yasutaka Ikeda and his prediction for a massive quake and tsunami. Regarding Mr. Ikeda, Goldfinger declared that, "Nobody listened to him." Because those in control in Japan did not listen to Mr. Ikeda, the Japanese people "just prepared for the wrong thing."(1) In the end, they got "bit."

Yes, certain other scientists in Japan also spoke openly about the earthquake and tsunami risk at least 2 years before the devastating 2011 tsunami which killed multiple thousands of people and smashed into the Fukushima nuclear facility, creating a nuclear disaster. These things are noted in the pages linked below. These scientists all realized that a large-scale tsunami was imminent because of the tsunami record and the geologic stresses in the affected region.

But, again, what happened? These scientists, too, were generally ignored by the "big boys" in the clique which controls what information is given to the media and the general public, plus how things are "spun" in important meetings. So, it appears that the general public in Japan paid a horrible price because of the utter negligence and potential arrogance of those who control the scientific community and industry in their country.






THEY  IGNORED  THE  EVIDENCE

There is something extremely important to consider regarding the devastating earthquake and tsunami event which occurred in Japan in March of 2011. There was no excuse for that large number of people --- at least 1,600 to 1,800 people --- to die in that large tsunami. At this point, let us again note that the general scientific community --- or at least those who control it --- did not believe that an M9.0 earthquake could occur in the Sendai region, nor did they believe such a large tsumami could occur. But, there is a lot more to this story. There truly is no excuse for the wilful ignorance of the scientists. They SHOULD have known!

The New York Times page linked below, from April 20, 2011 speaks of "hundreds of...so-called tsunami stones, some more than six centuries old, [which] dot the coast of Japan." These stones, which have writing engraved into them, warn people not to build their homes below these stones. Why? Because these numerous stones mark the level to which earlier tsunamis have reached. Oh, but the scientists turned a blind eye and trusted in all their "advanced technology" and computerized models, for which they obviously wasted a lot of time and money creating. But, logically, they should have been believing in and trusting the simple tsunami record written in the stones.


The page linked above notes something very important. The final height of the devastating tsunami generated by the 2011 Japan earthquake stopped about 300 feet below one particular tsunami stone in the quake area, at Aneyoshi, Japan. Now, Aneyoshi is located not that far away from the Fukushima nuclear facility --- the one which is still spewing radiation because of damage from the 2011 tsunami.

Again, the waters of the 2011 tsunami stopped 300 feet below a pre-existing tsunami stone. This could potentially indicate that this larger, earlier tsunami may have been created by a very large earthquake in the area --- an earthquake which may have been much larger than the 2011 event. The 2011 quake registered as an M9.0, so what could possibly have been the magnitude of that earlier quake?

The pages linked below present further information about the numerous tsunami stones in Japan, plus other related information and history --- information and history which was blatantly ignored by modern scientists. Why? Possibly because "modern" scientists feel that "we of our day are so much smarter and advanced than were earlier generations, therefore we can turn a blind eye to the experience and wisdom of these earlier generations."


Yes, we can follow any misguided or arrogant scientists and ignore the evidence written so plainly in the stones of this earth and within history --- yes, we can do it, to our ultimate destruction. With this thought in mind, just for starters, consider the following:






INFORMATION  TO  NOTE

Besides the mention of a tsunami stone, there is something else of interest to note in the page linked below. This page is from The Japan Times. It speaks of "a more-or-less V-shaped valley [which] has been gouged into a "U." It goes on to state that "Not only has every trace of human habitation disappeared, but even the topsoil has been sheared from the landscape --- not just on the valley floor, but up to an astonishing height of 40 meters on either side. With very little but bedrock remaining, the inlet now resembles the surface of the Moon."


Now, in our day, scientists tend to indicate that V-shaped valleys are cut by erosion and U-shaped valleys are cut by glaciers. The information presented in the page linked above does put another perspective on things, for it appears that it is possible for U-shaped valleys to be carved by the movement of massive amounts of debris-laden waters. Just something to think about, as you look across the face of our earth and think about what the terrain is telling you about those things which have happened in the past.




THE  TSUNAMI  RECORD

Moving onward, there is yet more to think about regarding the evidence of past geologic activities on this earth. The page linked below speaks further on the tsunami record written in the earth itself --- particularly in Japan. The page speaks about even bigger tsunamis than we have witnessed in our lifetimes. It speaks about sand deposits, in the terrain above current beach levels --- which sand deposits were created by very large tsunamis.

The page asks the following question: "So how, when the historical and geological evidence shows so clearly that devastating tsunamis hit a sinking coastline with a frequency that hardly labels them as 'black swans,' could such a catastrophic loss of life -- not to mention a nuclear emergency -- as we have been witnessing possibly occur?"

Yes, there are many questions which need to be asked. Possibly we should also not be putting so much "blind faith" in the general scientific community.


The page linked below presents information about a huge sand dome at Suruga Bay, in central Japan. This huge sand dome is part of the tsunami record of Japan and was formed by the sediments carried by a large tsunami which was up to 16.5 meters (54 feet) high. This tsunami was the result of an earthquake which struck Japan in 1854. This huge sand dome reaches more than 11.2 meters (about 37 feet) above sea level. It fills in and has been built upward along a shore of the original Suruga Bay.


This huge sand dome at Suruga Bay has been a testimony in the tsunami record of Japan. This huge sand dome speaks of a much larger tsunami than the one which occurred in March of 2011 --- the one which also created an ongoing nuclear disaster at the Fukushima nuclear facility. Yes, Japan holds much evidence of many larger, earlier tsunamis. Nevertheless, it appears that "modern" scientists chose to completely ignore all this glaring evidence.

Considering all the evidence noted in the above sections, there should never have been anywhere near 18,000 deaths resulting from the May 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan. It does appear that these numerous deaths were the result of complacency, incompetence, arrogance and total disregard for the safety and lives of others, by individuals in government and elsewhere.

Let those who live in the Cascadia region of North America ask themselves the following question. Is the same "stage" being set in the Cascadia region of North America, possibly even at a much larger scale?




UTTERLY  BLINDSIDED

There is something which must once again be made very clear. It appears that the general public often puts too much "blind faith" in scientists and whatever they say. It appears that the general public tends to look at the scientists as if they were some sort of infallible gods.

Some people have the attitude of, "If the scientists don't see it, it can't be true or cannot exist." Others have the attitude of, "If things look okay and safe to the scientists, we must be utterly safe and free of any danger." And again, "If scientists say that the largest earthquake or tsunami which can occur in a certain area can only be of a certain magnitude or maximum size, there is no potential for a larger earthquake or tsunami to occur." These can potentially be deadly attitudes.

The 2011 webpage linked here and further above declares: "Sometimes, scientists are blindsided by earthquakes because they occur along undiscovered faults. The deadly earthquakes in New Zealand this year; in Haiti last year; in Northridge, Calif., in 1994; and in Santa Cruz, Calif., in 1989 all happened along faults that scientists were unaware of until the ground shook." The page also states: "That raises a worrisome question: How many major quakes are lurking in underestimated or unknown faults or rifts?"

Yes, in the Cascadia region, "How may major quakes are lurking in underestimated or unknown faults or rifts?" Furthermore, how many faults or rifts will "link up" in the next Cascadia event, to greatly magnify the intensity and duration of the event? It appears these are things which the so-called "scientific consensus" is largely ignoring.




SURPRISING  MOVEMENT

There are other things to consider about earthquakes and why scientists are getting utterly surprised and blindsided --- over and over again. There are things like how large of an area can break loose, and, looking further, what will be the nature and form of this "breaking loose?" Then there is the unknown structure and actual physical makeup of things deep in the ground, plus the friction affecting movement, in and around a fault system. These things can all allow unknown and unpredictable things to happen during an earthquake event.

In the Japan earthquake of 2011, the scientists were served up a special surprise. The National Geographic page linked below declares that this massive quake and tsunami was caused by "the largest fault slip ever recorded." So, how are the scientists to know, beforehand, that something like this will happen? They cannot! They possibly know about as much as the common person on the street, about how things are going to break loose during a massive quake event.


Scientists are only operating on what they know. They make judgements and decisions based on their general experience. If something occurs which is outside of their general "bubble" of experience, they have no way of foretelling it. So, in Japan in 2011, something happened which was outside of their "bubble" of experience. The scientists of our day got to see a 50-meter (164 foot) horizontal slip in the fault system. It appears that prior to the 2011 quake, scientists only had knowledge of 30 to 40 meter (98 to 131 foot) slips.

The scientists are not gods. It also is becoming rather clear that, for the most part, they do not have a "pipeline" or connection to God. Therefore, they cannot foretell what is going to happen during a quake. And, yes, they will continue to be surprised again and again, with the increasing magnitude and scale of various seismic-related things which happen, as we approach what has historically been called "the end of the world."

The pages linked below speak further on some of the surprises and quake-related activity dished out to the scientists in recent times, plus things relating to some of their "miscalculations" and general disregard by many people --- people who should have known better.





COMPLETELY  UNKNOWN

Yes, scientists can and will be utterly taken be surprise during megaquake events. There seems to be a history of severely underestimating these devastating events, especially in more recent times. Looking at the track record, it likely will be no different during the next Cascadia megaquake event.

It is commonly believed that the last Cascadia event in 1700 produced a megathrust earthquake of magnitude 8.7 to 9.2 (link). Scientists and government services are preparing for a similar sized event in our day. But, will they once again be utterly blind-sided? Will Cascadia have an event far above what is expected, just like virtually every other region has experienced in recent times?

Truly, no one knows for sure what it will be like during the next Cascadia megaquake; not even the scientists. What we do know is that most people may be utterly stunned by the forces unleashed, plus it may seem like an eternity of sheer hell and terror, for those living through the event.




BACK  TO  THE  BASICS



KNOWN  FACTS

The webpages linked in the sections below bring to light a couple of very accurate facts. These are things which are known for sure in relation to a Cascadia megaquake event.

The first fact is this: If the Cascadia zone unleashes a megaquake event of its full potential, it will be the worst and most destructive natural disaster which the United States and southwest Canada have experienced in recorded history. This will especially be true if the epicenters are further inland and much closer to urban centers. This situation could be compounded if the quake has a negative effect on Hanford Nuclear Reservation or regional dams.

The second fact is this: We (governments and citizens alike) are not properly prepared to deal with a catastophic, full-scale Cascadia megaquake event, which could happen at any moment. Unfortunately, most people are very apathetic and complacent. Other things (like entertainment and special "medication") are much more important to them. They simply don't care about what lies ahead. For this reason, many will simply become statistics.




ONE-HUNDRED  YEAR  POTENTIAL

The link below leads to a webpage by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources. This page makes known that major Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquakes occur at irregular intervals. These irregular intervals can actually be "as short as about 100 years and as long as about 1,100 years."

Yes, the massive Cascadia megaquakes can potentially happen even at 100 year intervals. And, with major earthquakes occurring at an escalated rate in more recent times, plus with geologic stress being transferred at a higher rate, the Cascadia event could truly happen at any time and no human really has any idea of when it will actually happen, not even the scientists. The only thing that is known for sure is that IT WILL HAPPEN again, possibly with extremely devastating effects.






UNPREPARED

The webpages linked below show that people and governments in the Cascadia region are truly not prepared for a Cascadia megaquake. This lack of preparation may result in utter chaos when the devastating quake hits. It may also result in many more casualties, plus much greater hardship in the aftermath.








WHAT  WE  ARE  FACING

The webpages linked below present further information about what people in the region are facing, in the event of a devastating Cascadia megaquake. It must be noted that, if the epicenters for a full-potential Cascadia event are located relatively close to heavily populated urban areas, it might be found that the information presented in the linked webpages is a vast understatement.

One article linked below is titled '10,000 could die in Northwest quake, chilling report says.' It should be noted that this death estimate is based on roughly an M9.0 quake, with epicenters far offshore at the subduction zone. If a much larger quake occurs and/or the epicenters are much closer to heavily populated urban areas, the potential exists for a much larger death toll.







FROM  THE  CANADIANS

The United States is not alone in the Cascadia predicament. The Canadians of British Columbia also have their share of preparation problems, as shown in the articles linked below.

The article linked below declares: "A damning report by the Auditor-General that says British Columbia isn't ready to handle a catastrophic earthquake has drawn a prompt response from the provincial government, which promises to fix the problem. But this isn't the first time the government has been warned that its disaster response agency, Emergency Management BC (EMBC), isn't ready to deal with the aftermath of a big earthquake." It was warned "17 years ago."


The page linked below declares: "A magnitude 9.0 earthquake in B.C. would cause almost $74.7 billion in damage --- $62 billion in property damage and $12.7 billion in indirect economic impact, according to the study released by AIR Worldwide, a catastrophic risk modelling firm."

It should be noted that the damage estimates shown above are based on an M9.0 earthquake located "75 kilometres off the west coast of Vancouver Island" at the Cascadia Subduction Zone. But, what will be the damage if the initial earthquake epicenters are much closer to heavily populated urban areas?


The page above notes: "Canada faces a major risk for which we are clearly not prepared," said Don Forgeron, president and CEO of the Insurance Bureau of Canada.

The link below presents an important tidbit of information. It indicates that a shallow crustal quake in the M6.0 range on a fault closer to a city can generally create more devastation in that city than would be caused by a M9.0 megaquake on a distant subduction zone.


It should be noted that there are fault lines running near or under major West Coast cities which could potentially produce quakes in the M6.0 range, all on their own. But, if they were to link up with other triggered faults, even a much larger magnitude quake could result.



SPAWNING  DEVASTATING  QUAKES

The webpage linked below states that scientists have learned new things from past megaquakes. It declares: "The first new idea is about aftershocks that follow a big earthquake. They're not just a sort of quake death spasm; they can actually make more quakes more likely."

Earlier megaquakes and their aftershocks have "actually exported stress to other faults," yes, faults which are much closer to (or possibly even under) major cities. The page declares: "More stress could make them slip and cause another big quake near those cities." It could also cause a major quake on faults directly under cities.


The page above declares: "...Geoscientists now view some fault systems as closely tied together; when one part ruptures, others follow." Yes, "on occasion these faults can link up into much larger earthquakes." But there is more. "...What scientists are learning is that a big quake can be contagious, either right away, or over a period of months or years.




UNDISCOVERED  AND  LINKED  FAULTS

The 2011 New York Times article linked below declares: "Sometimes, scientists are blindsided by earthquakes because they occur along undiscovered faults. The deadly earthquakes in New Zealand this year; in Haiti last year; in Northridge, Calif., in 1994; and in Santa Cruz, Calif., in 1989 all happened along faults that scientists were unaware of until the ground shook." The article states: "That raises a worrisome question: How many major quakes are lurking in underestimated or unknown faults?"


The article above brings up some other, very interesting pieces of information. It states: "Even the notion of an earthquake fault --- a long crack in the earth --- is not quite as certain as it once was. Near Landers, Calif., seismologists had identified three faults, each capable of a magnitude-6.5 quake. Then, in 1992, an earthquake shook along all three faults at once, at a magnitude of 7.3."

What does all of this mean to those in the Cascadia region? First, it appears that there may be a number of concealed and undiscovered faults in the region. These faults may not be realized until Cascadia cuts loose with a long-lasting quake which is of a magnitude much greater than anyone thought could happen in this region, plus which covers a much greater area than expected.




FULL  POTENTIAL ?

In all of this, let us not forget that Cascadia megaquake events seem to have a nasty habit of triggering the San Andreas fault system in California. It should also be noted that there are numerous, more "surface" faults located throughout the Cascadia region, plus an unknown number of undiscovered faults and other fault systems which pass under the Cascade Mountains and into the region on the eastern side. Virtually all of these faults and systems contain a certain amount of built-up stress which could potentially be triggered during a megaquake event.

Considering the information presented in previous sections, does it now sound very realistic that there is a potential in the Cascadia region for a number of these faults to "link up into much larger earthquakes" than simply the large Cascadia fault, on its own, could produce? Could such a scenario unleash an earthquake event much larger and more devastating than simply an M9.0 or an M9.2, or even an M9.7 (which was mentioned earlier in this discussion)?

As a result of multiple faults linking their seismic energy together, could the next Cascadia event also last much longer than simply six minutes, or eight minutes, or twelve minutes? Truly, what is being dealt with in the Cascadia region?




PACIFIC  NORTHWEST  CITIES  AND  BEYOND

There are potentially dangerous geologic faults which run near or directly under the large population centers of the Pacific Northwest and southern British Columbia. A Cascadia megaquake event could readily trigger devastating quakes on one or a number of these faults. This could greatly magnify the potential for death and devastation at various population centers in the region.

The articles linked below present information about faults below Portland, Oregon, plus Seattle, Tacoma, Everett, and Olympia in Washington. In the right-hand margin of this page is information about Hanford Nuclear Reservation. A link in that section speaks of an "interconnected system [of faults] underlying the Cascades, from Puget Sound to Umtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Mountain, which loom above Hanford Nuclear Reservation..."





THE  SEATTLE  FAULT

Most of this report has been about the Cascadia fault. But, as noted above, there is much more to consider in a Cascadia event. Other faults could be triggered by the main Cascadia event. A number of these faults could link up with the main Cascadia event and produce a truly world-class earthquake, possibly a new world record.

The webpage linked below declares: "More recently scientists discovered a smaller, shallow fault running directly under the city of Seattle itself, called the Seattle Fault. This fault is less likely to generate a mega-quake above 8.0 but could do more damage to Seattle due to its proximity. This fault is part of a network of shallow faults, including a Tacoma Fault and Olympia Fault, each posing its own dangers to different parts of the region."


The webpage linked above declares: "A less intense quake on the Seattle Fault could actually be more devastating to the city, due to the shallow depth of the fault and its immediate proximity to the city. One study predicted that a quake of just 7.0 on the Seattle Fault would destroy 80 bridges in the Seattle metro area."

The page declares further: "The study's model calculated potential casualties of over 1,500 dead and 20,000 seriously injured. Major damage would occur to ferry terminals, port facilities, office buildings, and hospitals. The shaky Alaskan Way Viaduct would easily collapse. A major gasoline pipeline running through particularly unstable land in Renton could rupture."




EARTHQUAKE  VIDEOS



GETTING  EDUCATED

To even begin to prepare properly for a megaquake and to increase the chance of long-term survival, people must first understand, in the best way possible, what they are dealing with. The videos linked in this section present information about past megaquakes.

The video linked below is a good starting point in our education. It can help steer us toward a better understanding of large earthquake events and what to expect.


There is an important point to consider. Because each individual megaquake presents its own set of characteristics, there is no way of accurately telling what the next Cascadia megaquake will be like. The informative videos are just a starting point: an aid in helping to prepare.




THE  NEXT  MEGAQUAKE

The 14-minute video linked below, from 2012, presents a segment from a 48-minute BBC documentary called "The Next Megaquake." This video is a good starting point, as we begin to look at what the next West Coast megaquake could be like. But, once again, this video is based on earthquake epicenters located far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone.

If the true epicenters are located much closer to population centers, the outcome could be even much worse than that portrayed in the video.






EARTHQUAKE  COUNTRY

The 8-minute video linked below, from September 2012, is Part One in a presentation by Yumei Wang and the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI). This video makes known that Oregon is definitely "Earthquake Country." It declares that there is evidence of at least 40 major Cascadia earthquakes in the geologic record.


The 5-minute video, below, is Part Two in the presentation by Yumei Wang and Oregon DOGAMI. This video goes into Earthquake Hazards for the region. These include: Ground shaking, Fault rupture, Soil amplification, Liquefaction and lateral spreading, Landslides, and Coastal tsunamis. The video speaks of many faults in Oregon, besides the offshore Cascadia Subduction Zone. Truly, Washington state and British Columbia are dealing with similar situations.






MEGAQUAKES  AND  TSUNAMIS

The 48-minute video linked below, from the BBC in July 2012, discusses megaquakes and tsunamis. It gives information about other Pacific megaquakes and is a warning to people of the Pacific Northwest and southwest Canada. Are you properly prepared, and do you know what to do in the event of a devastating megaquake?


The 46-minute video below discusses the effects of earlier megaquakes in the Pacific Rim, and what the West Coast of North America may be facing in the times ahead, even as near as tomorrow. The New Madrid earthquake from 1811-1812 is also noted, plus what lies ahead for that region of the central United States.


The 3-minute video, below, looks further at the probability of a megaquake in the Pacific Northwest.






COMMENDATIONS

The author must commend various organizations for providing the introductory information necessary to help get the public educated on earthquake and tsunami preparation and survival. Just a couple of organizations will be noted here.

A commendation goes out to the Siuslaw Valley Fire & Rescue (SVFR), from Florence, Oregon. They have an excellent webpage titled 'Cascadia Earthquake Hazard Videos.' That page is linked below.

The SVFR page contains video links about tsunamis, liquefaction and general earthquake hazards. The SVFR is working to inform people, so they may have a better chance at survival during a Cascadia megaquake event. Thank you, SVFR.


A commendation goes out to the West Lane Emergency Operations Group for their excellent page, which is linked below. Links on that page access other pages on Emergency Preparedness, Preparedness Classes, and Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan. Thank you, WLEOG.


If you have seen any other fantastic, broad spectrum webpages about earthquake preparedness in Cascadia, just send an email to the writer via the contact information accessed by the link at the top-right-hand side of this page. If the writer is as impressed as you are, he will include a commendation and link for the site in this section.




THE  RUPTURE



REAL-TIME  ANIMATION

The link below accesses a popular real-time animation of the megaquake destined for the Pacific Northwest of the United States and southwest Canada. This video is commonly used in presentations to the general public. Captions on the screen indicate events which would be unfolding as this scenario of a six minute megaquake progresses.

The important point to realize is that a devastating earthquake is coming to the Cascadia region. May the information in the video captions be used wisely as we prepare for the future, however short or long it may be. But, there is actually more to the story, which will be shown in the section which follows, plus other sections of this report.


There is one other important point to consider about the video above. It shows the epicenters for the megaquake as being offshore. As noted earlier in this webpage, new studies indicate that the path for the epicenters could be more than 37 miles inland, much nearer major population centers. This would have a great effect on the final outcome of such a devastating event.




DIRECTION  OF  RUPTURE

There is one thing which must be clearly noted, for it is extremely important. The animation linked in the section above shows a subduction zone scenario with the rupture starting in the south and moving northward.

On the other hand, the Wikipedia entry for Cascadia subduction zone, linked here, under the subsection of 'San Andreas Fault connection,' speaks about Cascadia megaquakes also triggering the San Andreas fault. Then it states: "The evidence also shows the rupture direction going from north to south in each of these time-correlated events."




WHY  IT  IS  IMPORTANT

Knowing the true direction of rupture is very important, for it reveals how soon, once the megaquake begins, the major population centers in Cascadia will be impacted. If the megaquake starts in the south and moves northward, as shown in the video animation, it will initially impact areas of lower population density. If the quake starts in the south, there will be more time to alert the major population centers, before the devastating effects of the quake strike.

On the other hand, if the initial rupture is in the north of Cascadia and the travel is then southward, things will be very different. Major population centers will feel the devastating effects rather quickly. In this case, Victoria and Vancouver, British Columbia would be the first to be impacted. Then Seattle, Washington would be hammered violently. Portland, Oregon would next experience the devastating effects. The southern areas, with their lower population densities, would be affected last; but only if the quake event stops in Cascadia.




MODELING  THE  EFFECTS

The button below accesses an abstract for a research report which was printed in the June 2014 issue of the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. The full title of the report is 'Modeling the Effects of Source and Path Heterogeneity on Ground Motions of Great Earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using 3D Simulations.'

The abstract declares: "The southern Oregon coast appears to have increased risk because it is closer to the locked zone of the Cascadia fault than other coastal areas and is also in the path of directivity amplification from any rupture propagating north to south in that part of the subduction zone, and the basins in the Puget Sound area are efficiently amplified by both north and south propagating ruptures off the coast of western Washington."


From what is stated in the abstract, it appears that scientists may not be completely sure which direction Cascadia will rupture in the next megaquake event. Possibly it could be from north to south, or possibly it could be from south to north. So, it appears we may still be dealing with an unknown at this point. This may not be comforting for people living in the more northerly population centers.

Possibly this may be a reason to take more seriously the information presented further below in the section about Nature's Predictors, so potentially there could be adequate forewarning to people in major population centers. With adequate forewarning, more people will be able to get to safer locations, before the major shaking starts. Then, possibly, more lives could be saved.




ANOTHER  OPTION

The characteristics of major earthquakes can be extremely unpredictable. The rupture of a large fault system does not follow any preset rules. The propagation of the rupture, from the initial hypocenter, may not just go one direction or the other. Let us take, for instance, the largest earthquake ever recorded in Canada.

In the 1949 Queen Charlotte Island earthquake, the Wikipedia entry, linked here, declares: "The interplate earthquake began in the ocean bottom just off the rugged coast of Graham Island. It ruptured along the Queen Charlotte Fault both northward and southward more than 500 km (311 mi)."

So, it appears that a large fault can rupture in two directions at the same time, from the initial hypocenter. And yet, there may be more options than those already presented. In the days ahead, in the aftermath, we may discover the complex and unique combination which Cascadia dished out to everyone.




TRIPLE  JUNCTION  QUAKES



AT  BOTH  ENDS

The Wikipedia entry for 'Cascadia subduction zone,' linked here, declares: "The Cascadia subduction zone runs from triple junctions at its north and south ends. To the north, just below Haida Gwaii, it intersects the Queen Charlotte Fault and the Explorer Ridge. To the south, just off of Cape Mendocino in California, it intersects the San Andreas Fault and the Mendocino fault zone at the Mendocino Triple Junction."




IN  RECENT  TIMES

It was noted earlier in this document that in recent years, it appears that the Cascadia Subduction Zone has been strongly locked. It has been unlike any other subduction zone on this earth. It has been "eerily quiet," as one webpage described it. For that reason, it may be very important to consider what has been happening in the areas surrounding its northerly and southerly triple junctions.




IN  THE  NORTH

The webpage accessed via the button below has a current earthquake map at the bottom. This map is for Vancouver Island, Canada. There have been numerous earthquakes centered in this region in the past thirty days. It must be noted that this activity is occurring near the northerly triple junction for the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ). This activity may be transferring stress to the strongly locked CSZ.


The article linked below presents information about an M4.8 quake on January 7, 2015. The article states: "The earthquake is the latest in a series to strike off the B.C. coast." In the latter part of the prior week, there were quakes with "magnitudes of 5.2 and 4.5." The article also states: "A group of five earthquakes also struck west of Port Hardy further in late December." The article includes maps, with some earthquake history of the region.


The articles linked below present some interesting effects of the January 7 quake. The first article declares: "Wednesday's earthquake on the west coast of Vancouver Island created an underground disturbance that shut off the heated flow of water to the hot springs at Hot Springs Cove, reports Hesquiaht emergency coordinator Bernard Charleson. The spring is now running ice-cold." An update to the report declares that the spring returned to its heated state about a day later.

Of the cold water event, the first article declares: "...The sulphur smell is also missing." The article also notes: "Last year, an earthquake off Haida Gwaii disrupted the thermal flow to local hot springs for months." The second article indicates that Sharp Point Hot Springs were similarly affected, and the sulphur smell had returned by Friday.


Yes, interesting things are happening near the northern end of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ). Things are definitely moving and shifting below the surface of the earth. All this geologic action may be transferring additional stress to the strongly locked CSZ. The major, north-south faults in the Cascadia region may contain a staggering amount of potential energy, which is building even greater with each passing moment.




IN  THE  SOUTH

The article linked below discusses an M6.8 earthquake which struck the southern end of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) in March of 2014. The article states: "During the subsequent few hours many aftershocks followed in the same area." It also states that "every earthquake redistributes tectonic stresses in the area." This may mean that, as a result of these quakes, more stress has been brought to bear upon the strongly locked CSZ, from its southern end.


The article linked below declares: "A magnitude 5.7 earthquake struck just offshore of northern California on Wednesday [January 28, 2015], rattling a wide coastal area below the Oregon border." This quake was "relatively shallow, occurring at 10.7 miles (17.2 km) below the seabed... It was centered 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Eureka and struck at 1:08 p.m. PST." Yes, the stresses are moving around at the southern end of Cascadia.


The article linked below speaks of a recent USGS study. This study found that four faults in northern California, which "are part of the San Andreas fault system" are "loaded with enough tension to start a 6.8 or higher earthquake." It states: "Scientists believe these fault lines will deliver major quakes in the next 30 years."


The article below adds to the one directly above. It speaks about a section of one stressed fault "that runs near infrastructure crucial to water supply in much of the state." It declares: "The fault is located near dams and aqueducts that supply water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers to the San Francisco Bay area, Southern California, and the farm-heavy Central Valley."





ANOTHER  POTENTIAL ?

The situation noted above is not a good, especially if Cascadia megaquakes are known to trigger the San Andreas faults. But then again, a seismic event along the San Andreas may hold the potential for transferring a large amount of stress and triggering a massive Cascadia event.

After studying the deeper geologic connection beneath the western edge of North America, it may not come as a complete surprise if British Columbia, Canada, plus the states of Washington, Oregon and and virtually all of California were all to be experiencing massive earthquakes during one large event. Only time will reveal the truth on this matter.




ANOTHER  FEATURE

It is important to consider what is occurring along the San Andreas fault system, for, once again, there is a much larger connection between it and the Cascadia Subduction Zone, plus the Puget Sound region, than most people realize. There is that deep-seated, concealed rift which must be considered which resides somewhere relatively close to the path of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.

A connection between the deeper roots of the 1906 San Fransisco earthquake and the Puget Sound region will be discussed further down on this page. What happened in 1906 may be further evidence of that large geologic feature that resides further inland, which the scientists are either missing or ignoring in their models and calculations. This special feature, which generally parallels the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, has already been noted in this report. Once again, this feature is the ancient, concealed rift.




LESSONS  FROM  GREAT  QUAKES



VIRTUALLY  UNPREDICTABLE

The webpage linked below declares: "The 18 great earthquakes that have struck Earth in the past decade hold ominous lessons for western North America." "Many of these large quakes...were surprisingly different from one another despite their similar geologic settings. That variety implies that almost any scenario is possible in another part of the Pacific Rim where quake risk is thought to be high."


The webpage above speaks of a number of very unexpected things which have happened in "the recent spate of great subduction-zone quakes" which began in 2004. These unexpected events give many things to think about, when it comes to predicting the nature and characteristics of the next Cascadia megaquake.

Possibly Cascadia is completely unpredictable. Possibly scientists could be completely blind-sided, just like they were with another one of Cascadia's residents. In 1980, for most scientists, Mount Saint Helens was utterly unpredictable in the nature and severity of its devastating eruption. It was only a few rare scientists who actually understood what was going to happen.

Virtually everyone was stunned and amazed by the ferocity and utter devastation produced by the eruption of Mount Saint Helens. Scientists had utterly underestimated the magnitude and nature of the eruption in 1980, and 57 people died during the eruption because of it, including a scientist for the USGS.




COMING  MORE  OFTEN

There is something important which needs further consideration in the page linked here and further above. It notes that since 2004, great earthquakes within the Pacific Ring of Fire have been coming at "more than twice the rate of the previous century." This tends to indicate that stresses may be transferred to or building in other fault systems within the Pacific Ring of Fire at more than twice the earlier rate. What does this mean for the Cascadia region?




AN  IMPORTANT  CONSIDERATION

At this point, some very important questions need to be asked. In relation to these important questions, let us remember THE MAP presented near the beginning of this webpage, plus the fact noted above, that major earthquakes in the Pacific region are occurring at more than double the earlier rate. As clearly shown on the map, devastating megaquakes have been occurring at other points around the Pacific Ring of Fire, while the west coast of North America has been strangely exempt.

Now for the questions. Once again, because of all the megaquakes occurring around the Pacific Ring of Fire at a faster rate, are stresses being transferred to a strongly locked Cascadia fault system at twice the rate of the previous century? How may this effect the nature and severity of the next Cascadia megaquake event? Does this mean that Cascadia could build up for an M9.0-plus quake in a much shorter time? Or, if things take a bit longer until the rupture occurs, could the Cascadia region experience something far greater than just a mere M9.0 megaquake?

Could scientists be utterly stunned by the magnitude and nature of the next Cascadia megaquake, just as they were stunned by the magnitude and nature of the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in 1980? Yes, there are still many things for the scientists to learn, and Cascadia may prove to be a master instructor.




MEGAQUAKE  PRECURSORS



"SILENT  EARTHQUAKES"

The article from 2012, linked below, speaks about silent earthquakes. At the time of the writing, Washington and Oregon were "in the midst of silent earthquakes." Scientists were wanting "to learn more about the recently discovered phenomenon," which is also called by names like: "slow slip quake" and "episodic tremor and slip."

The article goes on to state: "Little is certain so far, but there's a possibility these deep tremors could trigger a damaging earthquake or serve as a warning bell for the Big One."

These slow slip quakes are the result of "grinding and slippage at depth," but this phenomenon "increases the strain closer to the surface" where the plates "are stuck together or 'locked.' When locked portions of the plates finally break loose, humanity gets the next Cascadia megaquake event.


The article above notes that the 2011 megaquake in Japan "was preceded by slow slip and tremor near the epicenter." It also speaks about the devastating 1999 earthquake in Turkey, "where instruments picked up a slow slip precursor."




AN  EARLIER  REPORT

The 2001 article, linked below, speaks of a silent earthquake event which occurred in 1999, so the phenomenon has been known about for quite some time. There is something very interesting to note in the article. It shows that, at times, the plates have "suddenly and briefly switched their direction [of movement] with no seismicity recorded."

The article states: "Silent earthquakes may not be good predictors of larger thrust quakes, but they can be used to begin to assess stress buildup along fault zones." Observation of slow slip events indicates that "the rate of stress accumulation is not steady but can occur in pulses."

It can take about "100 such slip events to bring the locked zone to failure." No one knows the true stress level or breaking point of the Cascadia zone, but one thing the scientists do know is that "one of these sudden deep-slip pulses could ultimately trigger a megathrust earthquake in the Pacific Northwest."






THREE  RELATED  EVENTS

The webpage linked below presents information on three episodic tremor and slip (ETS or silent earthquake) events which occurred a various points within the Cascadia region in August and September of 2014.

The first ETS cluster began in northern California and then moved to southern Oregon, before working back into California. Then things started moving under Vancouver Island, Canada with the second ETS cluster. The third ETS cluster was in the Puget Sound area, and occurred earlier than its "tradition 14 month" ETS event interval.


This change in the interval of ETS events in the Puget Sound region was rather unusual. Is it a signal for other important changes? It may be worth considering some of the comments made by others, in the webpage, as they discuss events happening in the Cascadia region in recent times and what these events could mean.




IMPORTANT  DOCUMENTS



FURTHER  EDUCATION

The articles and websites linked below present some very important information, as we educate ourselves on what is happening with Cascadia. The nature of Cascadia is considered, plus the magnitude of earlier Cascadia megaquakes. Then the strange silence in Cascadia is considered, and what it could mean.




A  LOCKED  FAULT

The article linked below is from December 16, 2014. It starts with the following words: "The Cascadia fault in the Pacific Northwest is locked up, meaning that a massive megathrust earthquake could occur at any time." It also states: "We can't be sure that it won't be tomorrow, and we shouldn't make the mistake of assuming we have decades to prepare."

What concerns scientists is that all of Cascadia has been seismically quiet during 2012 and up to the present. In the article, University of Oregon geophysics professor Doug Toomey made known that he is very concerned and "it is imperative that people in the Northwest continue to prepare for a big earthquake." Note, once again, the use of the word "prepare."






M9.0  OR  LARGER

The article, linked above, states that there have been "at least seven magnitude 9.0 or greater megathrust earthquakes in the past 3,500 years" in the Cascadia zone.

The article linked below declares: "Over the past 10,000 years, there have been 19 earthquakes that extended along most of the [Cascadia] margin, stretching from southern Vancouver Island to the Oregon-California border. These would typically be of a magnitude from about 8.7 to 9.2 - really huge earthquakes."

The article declares: "We've also determined that there have been 22 additional earthquakes that involved just the southern end of the [Cascadia] fault. We are assuming that these are slightly smaller - more like 8.0 - but not necessarily. They were still very large earthquakes that if they happened today could have a devastating impact."






CALM  BEFORE  THE  STORM ?

The December 3, 2014 article, linked below, states that "Earthquake scientists have listening posts along the coast from Vancouver Island to Northern California." Doug Toomey, from the University of Oregon, declares: "What is extraordinary is that all of Cascadia is quiet. It's extraordinarily quiet when you compare it to other subduction zones globally." This brings a person to once again ask, "Is this the calm before the incredible storm?"






A  TIME  TO  PREPARE

There is much to consider in the articles and videos linked above. With the plates being locked in recent times, rather than sliding freely, and with megaquakes occurring in the Pacific Ring of Fire at twice the rate of the previous century, it may be wise to diligently prepare for the next devastating megaquake.

Emergency food, water and shelter, plus sources for emergency heat and electricity, may be a wise investment of money and time. Learning basic survival skills may also be a wise use of time, plus learning various signs in nature which may indicate when a major earthquake is on its way, and possibly even when it is about to happen.




NATURE'S  PREDICTORS ?



GEOCHEMICAL  INDICATORS

The September 2014 Science webpage, linked below, declares: "Past studies have suggested that earthquake precursors could take the form of changes in electromagnetic fields, radon levels, or even animal behavior -- but the evidence has been anything but rock-solid. Now, researchers have found that, just before two large earthquakes in Iceland, geochemical signals changed dramatically in nearby ground water." The page indicates that geochemical spikes in groundwater have been noted "months before the earthquake."


The 2014 LiveScience page, linked below, states: "Scientists in Japan saw groundwater chemistry and radon levels shift before the 1995 Kobe earthquake and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake. Similar swings appeared before a 1976 quake in Tangshan, China."

Regarding the earthquakes in Iceland and changes in well water chemistry, the page states: "Certain elements started rising four to six months before a magnitude-5.6 earthquake on Oct. 21, 2012. The pattern repeated before a magnitude-5.5 earthquake on April 2, 2013." But, there is more to this story.

The page below notes that hydrogen and sodium levels in the well water had declined steadily for months before each of the earthquakes. But then, the levels of these two elements "rose sharply" before the earthquakes. It appears that other elements in the well water can also be affected before an earthquake.


The page linked below indicates that an increase in ground emissions of radioactive radon gas can sometimes signal a coming earthquake. But, this method has not proven itself to be completely reliable. Still, it may be one of the factors to include in a combination of potential earthquake indicators to watch for.






WEATHER,  PLUS  BAROMETRIC  OR  SUBTERRANEAN  PRESSURE ?

The Time article linked below begins with these words: "An accidental discovery has brought seismologists one step closer to being able to predict earthquakes. As part of an unrelated effort to measure underground changes caused by shifts in barometric pressure, a team of researchers found that increases in subterranean pressure preceded earthquakes along California's San Andreas Fault by as much as 10 hours."

Regarding an experiment in California, the article states: "Surprised scientists learned the seismic waves slowed dramatically on only two occasions: two hours prior to a magnitude-1 temblor, and a startling 10 hours before a magnitude-3 quake."



The page linked below presents a somewhat different type of experiment. The abstract at the top of the page starts with these words: "Clear atmospheric pressure changes associated with the 2003 Tokachi-Oki, Japan, earthquake with Mw 8.3 were recorded with the microbarographs distributed in Japan. The pressure change starts at the arrival of seismic waves and reaches its maximum amplitude at the arrival of Rayleigh waves, suggesting that the observed pressure change was driven by the ground motion of seismic waves passing by the site."



A presentation at an American Geophysical Union meeting, noted in the page linked below, suggested "that heavy rains were possibly to blame for observed patterns of seismicity in different parts of the world." A second presentation "suggested links between especially wet tropical storms and subsequent large earthquakes."


The information presented in this section may be just more things to consider in relation to the combination of factors which may be associated with any particular earthquake. In all reality, a somewhat different set of factors may be associated with each individual earthquake. Possibly, it is a matter of understanding the individual pieces of a given combination to look for, prior to any major seismic event.




AIR  CONDUCTIVITY  AND  IONIZATION

The 2016 page, linked below, speaks about tests made by "Friedemann Freund, a researcher at NASA." Regarding earthquakes, it appears that he may have found "a subtle signal emitted in the hours before the tremors start." The page states: "Whenever there was a moderate or big earthquake there was indeed a large increase in air conductivity.

Working from the findings of his research, Freund "is working towards a Global Earthquake Forecast System aiming to issue alerts at least 24 hours before an earthquake strikes."






THE  USE  OF  MULTIPLE  SENSORS

The 61-page report, linked below, is the product of research by NASA team members, plus international partners. The report speaks of a "ground surface thermal anomaly [which] appears 2 weeks [to] a few days before a seismic shock." It speaks of certain changes in air humidity which can be noted "up to two weeks before the seismic shock."

The SUMMARY of the report states that electro-magnetic (EM) satellites "can detect 'anomalies' over the land and ocean connected with impending strong earthquakes over major faults." It states that "Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling was observed prior to the main earthquakes and involves multiple geophysical parameters."

In the linked report, PDF pages 46 & 47 of 61 show just a few visual examples of atmospheric electromagnetic phenomena and unusual cloud configurations related to earthquakes.


The 23-page report, linked below, comes from the NASA website. It is titled 'Atmospheric Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes. A Multi-Sensor Approach.' The abstract at the beginning of the report states: "We are studying the possibility of a connection between atmospheric observation recorded by several ground [?] and satellites as earthquake precursors."

In the abstract for the report are found the following words: "We present our findings of multi-sensor atmospheric precursory signals for two major earthquakes in Japan, M6.7 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki of July 16, 2007 and the latest M9.0 great Tohoku earthquakes of March 11, 2011."

In the Conclusions, on PDF page 19 of 23, are found these words: "Latest results suggest a systematic appearance of atmospheric anomalies near the epicentral area, 1 to 5 days prior to the largest earthquakes..."


At this point, it should be noted that even one or two hours notice prior to a large Cascadia earthquake could potentially result in a large reduction in the number of lives which would otherwise be lost. Just five minutes to one hour of prior, widespread notice could potentially result in a significant reduction in the number of serious injuries and deaths from one of these megaquakes. The bottom line is, are we really serious about saving lives and preventing injuries?




NEW  AND  FULL  MOONS,  ETC.

The potential prediction methods noted in the sections above all require the use of scientific-type measuring equipment. But, are there ways which can potentially help to foretell when a major earthquake is about to happen, which do not require scientific instruments? At this point, the writer will say that it appears there may be. So, it is time to consider the information presented in the sections which follow.

The 2016 video, linked below, speaks about an interview with the "famed USGS scientist Jim Berkland," and a message to people of the West Coast. Berkland says, "Beware the new and full moons." Berkland, who has a better than average record for accurately predicting major earthquakes states that "20 of the last 25 'megaquakes' have occurred on the dates of new and full moons."


The new and full moons result in the "equinoctal tides," which are "extreme gravitational forces that cause solid earth to expand and contract much as ocean tides rise and fall." With "20 of the last 25 megaquakes" having occurred during a new or full moon, it means that a massive earthquake is not guaranteed to start at those times, but that it is more likely to start at those times.

For further information about Jim Berkland and major earthquakes related to the new or full moons, simply click on the button below. The button accesses a page in a book which notes serious earthquakes which were related to lunar eclipses or full moons. The bottom line in all this is: "You can't argue with success." Berkland has a pretty incredible record in earthquake predicting.


The button below accesses a more technical, 22-page article which considers further things like cosmic rays and solar activity, and how they may relate to powerful earthquakes. This paper does make a very important point which really needs to be considered. It states:

"Given the complexity of the events contributing to seismic activity and our rather limited knowledge of them, it is rather naive to claim that one single event may cause seismic activity. Most likely, seismic activity is caused by a combination of factors, somewhat similarly to vehicular accidents usually caused by a combination of factors such as road conditions, weather, driver's condition, etc."






EARTHQUAKE  BOOMS,  ETC.

The video linked via the first button in the section above speaks about missing pets and strange animal behavior prior to serious earthquakes. It speaks about changing water levels, possibly in things like wells. It speaks of changing temperatures and volume of flow in hotsprings prior to major quakes. It also speaks of booming sounds up in the mountains in an area which was soon hit with a large earthquake.

The webpage, linked below, presents information about Mystery Booms and Skyquakes. Of note is the following: "In New Madrid, Missouri, there are accounts of 'artillery-like' sounds that were said to have occurred before or during the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. The page also notes: "Mystery booms coming from deep in the plate boundary were reported in Indonesia for many months before the December 2004 quake and tsunami."

The page below makes the following interesting statement: "There have been many reports of "booms" that cannot be explained by man-made sources. No one knows for sure, but scientists speculate that these "booms" are probably small shallow earthquakes that are too small to be recorded, but large enough to be felt by people nearby." So, it appears there may be small, shallow, localized earthquakes which cannot be recorded by seismographs, but which can make an audible booming sound in the local area.


Linked here is a short YouTube video titled 'Strange Sounds in Colorado Before Earthquake,' which includes interesting audio. The information under the video states: "August 22, 2011. The sounds were captured by 2 hikers earlier in the day before the Colorado Earthquake. Does this have any link to the Virginia earthquake?"

The first page linked below speaks of "a powerful explosion sound which eludes detection by the best of seismographs, is a real earth event and should be correctly classified as an 'earthquake'." The second link states that the "Earthquake Boom is a very loud, deep sounding explosion, which emanates from the earth." It indicates that this sound emanates "from a wide area of the earth's surface," therefore is it hard to pinpoint where the sound is actually coming from. It notes that "current seismographs cannot 'see' or 'record' [these sounds]."


From the information presented above, it appears that earthquake booms can occur even "many months" before a devastating earthquake. This does bring up a question in the Cascadia region.




CASCADIA  BOOMS  CONSIDERED

This is possibly a good place to bring up unexplained booms in the Cascadia region. The pages linked below speak about the boom heard in Portland, Oregon, in 2010, on March 28 at 8:26pm. Could this unidentified boom be related to a certain type of geologic action in the Cascadia region?

Since Cascadia appears to be strongly locked, possibly no strong earthquake followed, at least up to this point. Could the booms simply be part of our "forewarning" that stress is building in the region and the surface in certain places is flexing around a bit?

It should be noted that the boom was heard mostly in southeast Portland. It also shook houses in that area. But, it appears the boom was also heard by some in North Portland and even at a point east of Interstate 205.


There are also booms occurring on the Olympic Peninsula, in northwest Washington state. The February 27, 2015, page linked below is from KOMO News. It speaks of "several loud booms" that no one could link to a source. At one house, the first boom "vibrated the floor and rattled windows."

The following question is asked in the linked page: "Could the booming sounds be coming from the earth?" The page then states: "Shallow earthquakes can cause loud booms, according to the U.S. Geological Survey website..."


It appears that the surface region of the earth may be flexing about in the Cascadia region. Again, this may be an indication of building and shifting geologic stresses. What does this mean for the times ahead? Only time will tell the real truth on this matter. In the meantime, it may be a wise use of time to get properly prepared.




CALIFORNIA  BOOMS ?

The pages linked below speak of unexplained booms even in California. Are these booms caused in the same manner as are the booms in Portland and on the Olympic Peninsula? Are these booms from extremely shallow, small earthquakes, which cause the surface of the ground to act like a speaker, emitting a booming sound?






THE  WHOLE  WEST  COAST ?

At this point, some questions need to be asked. As indicated by the booming sounds, is the ground flexing at various places along the whole west coast? What does this all mean? Is there a remote chance that virtually the whole West Coast of the United States, and possibly even Canada, could experience one large earthquake event or series of massive quakes? Could this have anything to do with a "major separation of landmass," which was spoken about in a video linked near the beginning of this discussion?(link)

With these thoughts in mind, let us now return to the remainder of the examination of nature's other apparent predictors of seismic events.




WATCH  THE  ANIMALS ?

The webpage linked below is from the United States Geological Survey (USGS). It declares: "The earliest reference we have to unusual animal behavior prior to a significant earthquake is from Greece in 373 BC. Rats, weasels, snakes, and centipedes reportedly left their homes and headed for safety several days before a destructive earthquake."

The page continues: "Anecdotal evidence abounds of animals, fish, birds, reptiles, and insects exhibiting strange behavior anywhere from weeks to seconds before an earthquake. However, consistent and reliable behavior prior to seismic events, and a mechanism explaining how it could work, still eludes us. Most, but not all, scientists pursuing this mystery are in China or Japan."

The page also states: "If in fact there are precursors to a significant earthquake that we have yet to learn about (such as ground tilting, groundwater changes, electrical or magnetic field variations), indeed it's possible that some animals could sense these signals and connect the perception with an impending earthquake."



Below are multiple links to information about animals as predictors of earthquakes.












There is one point which becomes clear after reading the information contained in the links above. It appears that the unusual actions by wild animals may be among some of the best indicators for major earthquakes. On the other hand, domestic animals appear to have their senses dulled from the effects of modern "civilization." Therefore, domestic animals may not be reliable indicators.

Nevertheless, if your domestic animal starts acting very strange, in a manner similar to that noted in the linked information, you may check with other people to see if their animals are displaying similar activities. The larger the number of animals displaying "indicator" activities, the more then should humans possibly take note and take cover.




NUMEROUS  BIRDS  TAKING  FLIGHT

The September 6, 2016 article, linked below, is from The Washington Post. It speaks about an earthquake which occurred on Saturday, September 3, 2016. But there is something notable which took place just before this earthquake broke loose. At 6:47 a.m., "thousands of birds took flight across the state of Oklahoma. These large flocks of birds which suddenly took flight showed up as blue and green images on weather radars. The page states: "Then at 7:02 a.m., a 5.6-magnitude earthquake struck the state..."

Let us take a closer look at the information above. Numerous birds suddenly took flight at 6:47 a.m., and the earthquake struck at 7:02 a.m., just 15 minutes after the birds took flight. Fifteen minutes notice...what could be done in this time? With fifteen minutes notice, because some alert individuals noted what was happening in nature, how many additional lives could be saved in a massive earthquake? With 15 minutes notice, how many additional people could escape to safer surroundings, where they could possibly avoid serious injury or death?


Some of the articles linked below contain the basic information which is included in the article linked above. There is also information about an earlier occurrence of flying critters in relation to earthquakes.


Yes, Nature appears to often present its warning signs, shortly before it cuts loose with its 'surprise" for humanity. Learning to read and understand Nature may ultimately prove to have its benefits, especially when it comes to earthquakes.




INFRASOUND

It should be noted that earthquakes and geologic movements deep in the earth can produce low frequency pressure waves. These are like low frequency sound waves, which are below the audible hearing range for humans. This low frequency sound is called infrasound.

With the proper intensity for humans, infrasound is called "sound you can feel, but cannot hear." It is likely that animals are more sensitive to natural or geologic infrasonic vibrations, or something related to them, which causes them to act strangely before a serious earthquake.




ANIMALS  AND  EARTH  WAVES

The webpage linked below declares that after the devastating 2004 Sumatra megaquake, "stories emerged of some animals acting oddly just before the tsunami hit: Eyewitnesses in Sri Lanka and Thailand told of elephants that trumpeted before seeking higher ground, dogs that refused to go outside, and flamingos that suddenly abandoned low-lying nesting areas."


The page linked above states: "Infrasonic sound waves can be spawned by intensely energetic occurrences like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, avalanches, lightning, meteors, and iceberg calving. Elephants, rhinos, hippos, whales, felines, dogs, and many birds rely on infrasonic sounds for both communication and navigation."

The page declares: "Many animals, insects, and birds are also particularly sensitive to Rayleigh waves..." These waves "travel at ten times the speed of sound" and would, therefore, get to the animals and other living things before the destructive forces. Those living things which can sense these waves, plus infrasonic waves, may tend to give the "flight" response to their acquired "message."




ANIMALS  AND  GEOPHYSICAL  STIMULI

The first link below is to an abstract of a professional paper. The full title of the paper is 'Unusual animal behavior before earthquakes: A review of possible sensory mechanisms.' In the paper, the researchers declare: "Our major conclusion is that some animals are much more capable than humans of perceiving certain kinds of geophysical stimuli which may precede earthquakes."

The paper accessed by the first link mentions seismic and acoustical waves, plus electric field changes and olfactory stimuli. Then the researchers state: "In addition, stimuli caused by the release of gases from small cracks [in the ground] may well be perceived by some animals before earthquakes." The second link presents information about the reactions of toads and snakes to coming earthquakes.


At this point, it should be noted that gases may readily be released when things move deep in the earth. An article notation from the 'Journal of Petroleum Geology,' linked here, presents information about earthquake outgassing through faults in the crust.

Prior to a devastating earthquake, things slowly move or shift deeper in the earth. As trapped gases escape, certain animals may sense these gases coming out of the ground. Possibly that is why some historic records show animals acting strangely, even days prior to a devastating quake event.




UNUSUAL  ANIMAL  BEHAVIOR

The research paper linked below, on page 6 of 14, notes: "Hibernating snakes leaving their burrows during the winter, one month before the 1975 Haicheng (M = 7.3) earthquake; froze to death." Yes, large-scale, strange and unusual animal (or reptile) behaviors, at any time, are worth further consideration.

On page 7 of 14, the summary of Chinese data notes: "Most animals in the seismic area became increasingly restless, and a number of them fall into a state of anxiety." "These features may appear from a few minutes to as long as ten days before the earthquake, but usually the precursor time is within 24 hours of the quake."


The paper linked above notes on page 7 of 14: "...Only a fraction of a given species shows unusual behavior. Some show no anomalous behavior; on the other hand, some anomalous animal behavior may not be followed by an earthquake." Page 12 of 14 indicates that anecdotal earthquake accounts often note unusual behavior in "dogs, cows, horses, and chickens."

The paper above, on page 11 or 14, speaks of "birds flying continuously and refusing to land." So, if the sky fills with birds doing unusual things, possibly something is about to happen. Yes, the whole research paper above is worth reading, for it notes how various animals may react prior to quakes. It also notes the release of underground gases, which may effect animal behavior.




WATCH  THOSE  SNAKES

The articles linked below indicate that the behavior of snakes helped in the prediction of a large earthquake on Turkey's western coast, on Monday, June 12 of 2017. In this case, snakes began displaying unusual behavior in some cities two days befor the quake. So, for observant individuals, snakes may help in giving early warning to serious quakes.


The webpage linked below, about a Chinese earthquake in December 2006, indicates further that snakes can be used to help predict earthquakes. The page states: "Serpents can sense a coming earthquake from 120km (75 miles) away, up to five days before it happens. They respond by behaving extremely erratically."






SOME  THOUGHTS

An Internet search will provide quite a number of historic earthquake accounts which speak of animals acting in strange ways, prior to major earthquakes. It may be wise to consider that animals and other entities may have the ability to sense things which humans cannot. Possibly some animals really can sense earthquakes in advance.

For our own safety, it is always good to be aware of that which is going on around us. If you happen to note quite a number of Nature's other entities doing strange and unusual things in the Cascadia region, it might be wise for you to start looking for a safe place.

There is also something called "preventative medicine." If you happen to take cover when a number of animals are acting rather strange, generally, it won't hurt you. And if nothing bad happens at this time, "Oh well." There is the old saying: "Better safe, than sorry."




ELECTRIC  AND  MAGNETIC  INTERFERENCE

The webpage linked below declares: "The electronic age has added a new category of earthquake precursor reports to the ancient legends." It continues: "They are accounts of odd behavior and noises from domestic electric appliances: TVs, radios, clocks, refrigerators, mobile phones, fluorescent lamps, car navigators, and possibly computers."

Among the unusual signs noted are: "clocks stopped or hands rotated rapidly, fluorescent lamps lit up, radios went dead or produced static, color shifts and speckle noise appeared on TV screens or sets fluctuated between channels, the needle on a magnetic compass fluctuated." One interesting entry is: "nails hanging for weeks from a permanent magnet dropped off two hours before the Ansei-Edo (Tokyo) Earthquake (M6.9) in 1855."


The webpage above states: "Two electric power transformers made strange 'hoh-hoh-hoh' sounds from 13 to 6 hours before an earthquake (M5) in Canton, China in 1970." It is of interest to note that a researcher "detected noise before earthquakes by measuring current in the neutral line of three-phase power lines."

Regarding the above phenomenon, the following explanation was given: "Power lines are effectively huge antennae, or circuits, capable of measuring earth potential differences, and are therefore possible detectors of earth current and/or EM waves before earthquakes."

The webpage linked below declares: "In the days leading up to some recent moderate-sized earthquakes, instruments nearby have picked up brief low-frequency pulses in Earth's magnetic field." The page is an interesting and informative read.


The webpage linked below begins with the following words: "Strange electromagnetic signals were detected two months before a major earthquake hit Japan."






EARTHQUAKE  LIGHTS

The National Geographic article below declares: "Rare flashes of light that are sometimes seen around earthquakes...are caused by electrical properties of certain rocks in specific settings..." "...The lights can take 'many different shapes, forms, and colors,' says study coauthor Friedemann Freund, an adjunct professor of physics at San Jose State University and a senior researcher at NASA's Ames Research Center."

The article continues: "Freund says common forms of earthquake lights include bluish flames that appear to come out of the ground at ankle height; orbs of light called ball lightning that float in the air for tens of seconds or even minutes; and quick flashes of bright light that resemble regular lightning strikes, except they come out of the ground instead of the sky and can stretch up to 650 feet (200 meters)."


The page above makes known that earthquake lights are rather rare. The author's research indicates that earthquake lights tend to occur more often with very powerful earthquakes. The page above states that "the lights can occur weeks before major earthquakes...or during actual shaking. They have been recorded at distances of up to 100 miles (160 kilometers) from the epicenter."

The page linked below ends with the following words: "...Earthquake lights could be more than an intriguing phenomenon - they could be a vital indicator, for some, that the ground is about to start shaking. If you see visible lights in the sky, and you live in an earthquake-prone area, they might be an early-warning sign that an earthquake is approaching..."


At the following links (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) are photos of earthquake lights in the sky.  The links below access additional articles on earthquake lights.









ATMOSPHERIC  HEATING  AND  RADIO  WAVES

The 2011 article linked below declares: "Infrared emissions above the epicenter increased dramatically in the days before the devastating earthquake in Japan, say scientists." It also states: "Last year, we looked at some fascinating data from the DEMETER spacecraft showing a significant increase in ultra-low frequency radio signals before the magnitude 7 Haiti earthquake in January 2010."

Prior to the devastating 2011 earthquake in Japan, "the total electron content of the ionosphere increased dramatically over the epicentre, reaching a maximum three days before the quake struck. At the same time, satellite observations showed a big increase in infrared emissions from above the epicentre, which peaked in the hours before the quake. In other words, the atmosphere was heating up." There are some who believe that a large man-make ionospheric heater may have been involved.


The 2010 article linked below states: "A French satellite observed a dramatic increase in ultra low frequency radio waves over Haiti in the month before the M7.0 earthquake earlier this year." The French satellite was the DEMETER spacecraft noted above.

The article states: "DEMETER's is an unusual mission. Its job is to monitor low frequency radio waves generated by earthquakes." In the run-up period prior to the devastating Haiti earthquake in 2010, DEMETER recorded "a significant increase of the energy of ULF waves, up to 360%, for a period of one month before the main earthquake compared with the energy of the background..."


An increase in localized atmospheric heating and "a significant increase in ultra-low frequency radio signals" are things which the average individual will not notice with their normal senses. But, with the proper equipment, changes in Nature before massive earthquakes can serve as a warning. Furthermore, a one month notice prior to a major quake, when using the proper equipment, should be more than enough warning for people to properly prepare.



HAM  RADIO  EARTHQUAKE  DETECTION ?

When it comes to detecting an imminent earthquake, there are a number of signs, working together, which could help to expose the danger. In the article linked below, it appears that certain characteristics noted in Ham Radio signals, prior to an earthquake, may be worth investigating further.

The page below speaks of using CW (continuous wave, using Morse code) on the 80, 40 and even the 20 meter bands. It speaks of a strange echo or ringing in the signals from an area soon hit by an earthquake. In the important Comments section in the latter part of the page are other interesting methods of earthquake detection mentioned.


One Comment notes "that earthquakes propagated electrical signals that could be recorded earlier than acoustical signals." It speaks of "a series of ground rods driven into the earth and monitored using sensitive amplifiers." The Comment states: "One could see a build-up of electrical energy prior to the event, then the familiar 'ring' of the signal after the event."

The commentor states: "I believe the quartz crystals in the rock and sand generate electrical charges that are magnified prior to the fracture of rock, which releases the energy. It has also been reported that there were flashes of light during earthquake events. I believe it is the same piezoelectric charges being released, in this case light, but I suspect it happens across all frequency bands like a Tesla coil."



"RIPPLES"  IN  THE  IONOSPHERE

The webpage below states: "The devastating earthquake that struck Japan this year may have rattled the highest layer of the atmosphere even before it shook the Earth..." It states further: "Disruptions of the electrically charged particles in the ionosphere lead to anomalies in radio signals between global positioning system satellites and ground receivers, data that scientists can measure."


The page linked below states that prior to the devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake, atmospheric electron activity was being monitored by satellite. In the months just prior to the devastating quake, there was "an unusual pattern of behavior in the ionosphere." The page then begins to speak about piezoelectric effects from stressed and deformed quartz, and declares: "At a certain amount of stress, you start seeing a flow of electrons."

The page states further: "In the days, weeks and months before earthquakes, intense stresses on rocks along faults can create piezoelectric effects that produce free positive ions. When released into the atmosphere, these ions rise upward under the influence of Earth's global electromagnetic field," and travel upward to the ionosphere. The influx of ions into the ionosphere have an effect on radio communications, which can then be detected as a disruption of normal radio signal characteristics. This is something which is worth further research.





(Part 1)   "EARTHQUAKE  CLOUDS"

The webpages linked in the numbered sections below speak of "strange cloud formations" which have been known to precede earthquakes. It appears that things happening deep in the earth can create wave or other unusual patterns in the sky which can be observed in the characteristics of clouds, prior to an earthquake.

It appears that it is possible for "these clouds [to] form days before earthquakes." In one case, it is said that there were "extraordinary clouds occurring a week before the earthquake." Another case speaks of these unusual clouds forming "more than 50 days in advance of the earthquake."

On the other hand, some state that these strange cloud formations "are not reliable precursors," therefore, the reader will have to make up their own mind on these things. Possibly the best method is to look for other earthquake indicators at the same time, rather than relying simply on the clouds. Nevertheless, it appears that unusual clouds can be an important part of earthquake prediction.




(Part 2)   SUDDEN  CLOUD  FORMATION

The page linked below states: "An earthquake cloud is distinguished by its sudden appearance and unusual shape and movement. It comes from an impending hypocenter, so its tail generally points toward or predicts an impending epicenter. The more mass an earthquake cloud has, the bigger the subsequent earthquake." The page states further: "Based on statistics from about 500 events, the longest delay from an earthquake cloud to its earthquake is 103 days, and the average is 30 days..."

The page below gives an example of an earthquake cloud event. It states that "on Dec. 20, 2003, a distinctive cloud suddenly appeared above Bam, Iran, and then stuck there for 24 hours in spite of strong wind before the devastating Bam earthquake on Dec. 26, 2003." The writer would have to say that this is quite an example. There is another thing mentioned in the page below which is worth some further investigation. That is the phenomenon of "geoeruptions," which can also be used as a marker and predictor for quakes.





(Part 3)   EMERGENT  POINT  AND  EPICENTER

The page below presents further information about the use of earthquake clouds to predict the devastating 2003 earthquake in Bam, Iran. It should be noted that, by considering the emergent point of the earthquake cloud, the general epicenter for the earthquake was identifiable on a satellite photo.


The page linked below presents information relating to the disasterous Wenchuan earthquake which occurred in Sichuan, China, in 2008. The page states that "there were two abnormal linear clouds, shaped as arrow and strip respectively, [that] occurred five and three hours before [the] shocking..." The page states further: "...the epicenter was exactly located at the far-intersection point of the two linear clouds." It should be noted that the "two linear clouds disappeared immediately after shocking."





(Part 4)   A  TWO-DAY  WINDOW

The page linked below indicates that, by the use of clouds, a Chinese prediction was made 2 days in advance of a major, deadly quake. In this case, there were rainbow-colors scattered in the clouds. Unfortunately, the people did not consider the warning and "at least 62,664" died in the severe quake. The page below also mentions thousands of frogs crossing a road, 2 days prior to the major quake. Yes, there was more than one sign pointing to a quake. About two-thirds of the way down the page, other cases of earthquake prediction via the clouds are noted.





(Part 5)   UNITED  NATIONS  INFORMATION

A United Nations document, linked below, presents further information about the use of earthquake clouds for predicting the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake, beginning on PDF page 43 of 162. Information on the use of earthquake clouds for the prediction of earthquakes continues through PDF page 67 of 162, with references and links to website as the last three pages, for a total of 25 pages.

In the link below, on PDF page 47 of 162, is found the following: "An earthquake cloud can be distinguished from weather clouds by the following properties: a sudden appearance; a fixed source location (a fault); and a special shape such as a line, a snake, a few parallel lines, a bind of parallel waves, a feather, a radiation or a lantern pattern. These properties do not occur together in weather clouds."





(Part 6)   ADDITIONAL  INFORMATION

The pages linked below present additional information about earthquake clouds. For those interested in this subject, they are all worth examining. Again, it should be noted that earthquake clouds have a habit of forming rather quickly, even in clear blue sky. Earthquake clouds are not in any way related to aircraft, and, in many cases, they can "point" to their source.





In a discussion on earthquake clouds, there is one very important thing to note. Earthquake clouds should not be confused with relatively short-lasting contrails left behind jet aircraft in the sky, nor with the long-lasting chemtrails sprayed by aircraft, which it appears the geoengineering crowd is using to change our earth and climate.

Yes, the intentional confusion in the sky created by the long-lasting chemtrails can make it harder to discern genuine earthquake clouds. So, the only advice to give is this: diligently study the subject, so you are able to better discern the difference between artificial and natural clouds.

Photos located at the following links show just some of the artificial clouds which are created by aircraft and, it is said, the spraying of questionable aerosols: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)

Information relating to the geoengineering crowd is accessed via the buttons below. The first linked page appears to be an admission by MIT Technology Review that geoengineering can readily be done. But, the writer of the page you are now reading does not believe that geoengineering is truly good for the planet or humanity, nor does he accept what he believes to be the twisted logic or deceptions of the geoengineering crowd.

As a note, when looking at the first linked page, geoengineering is not something for which "a handful of scientists are eager to move ahead with experiments." It is becoming rather obvious that geoengineering has been happening for decades. Furthermore, the writer's research over the years tends to indicate that the geoengineering crowd may be linked to the eugenics crowd. For those with an interest, check it out further for yourself. You might be surprised with what you find.



Now, back to earthquake clouds. The following links access photos of just some types of clouds which are said to be authentic earthquake clouds. Note in the first photo that the clouds are just different from those created using jet aircraft. They are more irregular shaped and more "puffy" --- yes, they are more natural looking, though rather unusual in their nature. Now, the photos: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

There is one other very important matter to consider. The writer does not feel it is wise to use only earthquake clouds in the process of predicting a coming, major quake. Earthquake clouds can be a potential factor to put "into the mix." Other signs should also be looked for. The more signs which are presenting themselves at the same time, the more likely a quake is soon to happen in the surrounding region.

The bottom line is, in the writer's opinion, no sign or potential prediction method should be utterly discounted, but it should be cross-referenced with other available signs. If no other signs present themselves, then a particular cloud formation may not necessarily be indicating an imminent earthquake.

For those with an interest, study this subject further on your own. At some point in the future, the knowledge of this type of information could potentially help save your life, plus the lives of others around you.



(Part 7)   A  VIDEO  TO  CONSIDER

The YouTube video linked below does bring up an important question. Did the clouds forewarn people in Japan of coming quakes? The video notes the comparision between different cloud photos and earthquake cloud diagrams shown in a website. The latter part of the video shows a number of cloud photos from various areas.





(Part 8)   MECHANICS  BEHIND  QUAKE  CLOUDS

The page linked below considers the mechanism by which earthquake clouds form. It also notes an increase in ground temperatures at the point where an earthquake is going to occur. This increased ground temperature occurs just prior to the earthquake. Keep this increase in ground temperature in mind, for it appears to be very important, plus appears to be very revealing.

There is something else which the linked page notes. It indicates that seismologists do not understand, nor can they explain, the formation of earthquake clouds. So, please bear with the writer for a few paragraphs, because it appears to be time to set all "political correctness" aside and say things as they really appear to be. Hopefully, the following blunt and leveled statements, which are the writer's opinion, can potentially help to open the eyes of at least a few members of the general public.

By reading the page linked below, it appears that highly-educated and very well-paid scientists definitely know how to extremely complicate something --- complicate something which is actually relatively simple in nature. It appears that highly-educated scientists can so horribly complicate things, that they do a very good job of utterly blinding themselves to the rather simple reality of nature and what is really happening. And, unfortunately, the general public often "bows" to the scientists as if they were gods.

Basically, it appears that the mainstream scientists may be wasting time and all that grant money (and possibly a lot of your tax dollars), as they play expensive and manipulative mind games with themselves and the general public. Possibly it is time to put an end to all this foolishness and get back to the simple truth --- the reality of nature. It may also be time to cut off all that grant money and possible tax dollars which the scientists appear to have been utterly squandering over quite a long period of time.

As the page linked below notes, those "seismologists do not understand, nor can they explain, the formation of earthquake clouds." Why? It appears that reality and the simple truth of nature is outside their "learning bubble," or that which they have paid a lot of money to be taught in school. Nevertheless, for free, the self-taught writer --- a very basic, amateur geologist --- gives what appears to be a logical explanation of the relatively simple mechanics behind earthquake clouds. This basic explanation is found in the right-margin information of this page, at this level, under the section titled 'Earthquake Clouds.'

Now, end of blunt and leveled statements, which are the writer's opinion --- for the moment. Let's get back to the page linked below. It states further: "Current seismological theory new or old is not equipped to answer the true earth dynamics." Well, this is quite a statement and revelation! With this revealed, let us return to earthquake clouds. The page states: "All Earth Transient Clouds [earthquake clouds] form within 10 to 15 seconds from a powerful earth transient within the crust." And, for those who have been wondering, the page closes with these words: "And yes, earthquakes are predictable."


The writer of the page you are now reading believes that the page linked above may also be slightly on a diverging path from the simplicity of nature and the actual cause of earthquake clouds. Once again, the writer presents what may be a rather simple explanation for earthquake clouds in the right-margin information of this page, at this level, under the section titled 'Earthquake Clouds.' Let us now move onward.

The page linked below contains an abstract of a report published from the American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2006. This report considers the physical mechanism behind the formation of earthquake clouds. It considers "anomalous vertical electric fields" which are "generated in the vicinity of active tectonic structure[s] due to air ionization produced by the radon increased emanation."


The page linked above does have merit. To better understand what is going on with earthquake clouds and where all that moisture for cloud formation is coming from, once again, read what the writer has to say in the right-side-margin information, at this level. Now, add to this large amount of moisture emitting from the fault in the earth, those "anomalous vertical electric fields" which are noted in the page linked above.

According to a page, linked here, "a water droplet elongates in an electric field..." And, "water droplets in an electric field become polarized through alignment of the polar water molecules with the external electric field..." Possibly things like this, or similar to this, may also be involved in the formation of earthquake clouds --- especially those which hold position over a fault zone, even during a time of strong winds.



(Part 9)   INEXPENSIVE  QUAKE  PREDICTION

The Chinese page linked below states: "Unlike the gravity and geomagnetic measurement [methods for predicting earthquakes,] which need millions of dollars to build a station and transfer network, the method presented here is very inexpensive because anyone can download satellite data from the internet and analyze them." The page notes that "geostationary satellite imagery with 1h [one hour] temporal resolution is used. Its resolution is enough to monitor the cloud continuous movement."

The Chinese page goes into quite a bit of detail about how this particular individual used clouds to predict earthquakes. Earthquake clouds can act in unusual ways. In one case, the page below states that a cloud remained stationary for 8 hours, "and did not move with winds. In the whole of Europe, all the clouds were moving except this linear cloud over Italy." Yes, these earthquake clouds are an interesting and unusual phenomenon, which helps to make them stand out, even in the midst of other clouds in the sky.


All of the information presented above in the nine-parts relating to earthquake clouds is worth considering and possibly warrants further research. It should be noted that earthquake clouds have been used for inexpensive earthquake prediction since antiquity. It appears that forecasting by these clouds has saved many lives. The bottom line is this: if something is observed that positively looks like an earthquake cloud, it is better to err on the side of caution, rather than simply disregarding an old science. At that point, start looking for other verifying signs, also.




BEING  OBSERVANT

It is the writer's belief that observing one's surroundings and noting as many various "earthquake" signs as possible, may be the more reliable method for predicting a coming seismic event. The more "signs" in the combination of observations, possibly the more sure the prediction. Certain signs may also help to identify just how soon the earthquake will occur and possibly may give some indication of its potential magnitude.



VARIETY  OF  SIGNS

Below are links to webpages which consider a variety of earthquake signs. One thing must be noted. Each and every one of the signs shown on these pages may not always be reliable, especially when only considered by themselves. But then again, it is good to be aware of them. There is a chance that the recognition of these signs could save your life, and the lives of those you love or care about.


Bottom line is this: If you see a number of different "earthquake signs" occurring at the same time, you had better take note. Your life could depend on it.

With a few forms of "Nature's predictors" considered, let us now look at potential roadblocks to reliable earthquake prediction, before we return to the subject of a devastating megaquake in the Cascadia region.




ROADBLOCKS  TO  QUAKE  PREDICTION ?



CONSIDERING  THE  PROS

Some may ask what the USGS is doing about earthquake prediction, especially when considering what people in the Cascadia region are facing, plus people in earthquake-prone California. Well, check out the information presented in the webpage linked in the section below, and then decide for yourself.




SEISMO-ELECTROMAGNETICS

The page linked below is making a case for the "science of seismo-electromagnetics," which is being used in Peru with good success. The December 2015 page states that in Peru, they have a system which is "still in development." But, there is something very important to note about this system. It "has accurately forecast 18 quakes." The page states further: "In five years of monitoring the Peruvian coast, this system hasn't missed a single strong quake. Even a scarcely palpable micro-quake as weak as 3.1 was detected days in advance."

The page states that "seismo-em techniques can image rocks under stress before an earthquake strikes." It appears that it was "the genius of Friedemann Freund, a NASA physicist whose theory and lab experiments lit the way" for this impressive technology. So, how is the USGS responding to technology of this nature? The page states that, "USGS authorities with absolutely no comprehension of solid-state physics continually parrot that earthquakes cannot be forecast."





OUT  TO  DESTROY ?

The page linked in the section above states: "The reality is the USGS missed the seismo-em boat. Worse, for nearly 40 years, it has tried to sink it. A powerful clique of seismologists dominates the agency's hierarchy. This clique and its academic allies went far out of their way to destroy critical research in solid-state physics, solid-solution chemistry and radiophysics: research that made ... forecasts possible."

The page states further: "If that weren't enough, the clique colluded to damage the reputations of accomplished scientists at home and abroad. Even scientists with strong records of published peer-reviewed research were targeted as 'wackos.'"

A person could begin to wonder what is going on here, in the United States. Is the USGS and other government agencies actually hoping that numerous people will die in some disaster? Yes, the information presented in the page linked in the section above, plus information found elsewhere on the Internet about the agenda for human de-population, could really make a person wonder.



SEISMOLOGISTS'  STANDARD  ANSWER

The page linked below states: "Ask seismologists when they'll be able to predict earthquakes, and the answer is generally: sometime between the distant future and never." The second button presents further information about this subject.

Because of their fundamental opinion on earthquake prediction, possibly seismologists are not the people we need to go to in order to acquire an earthquake warning system which gives plenty of advanced notice for devastating and deadly seismic events. Possibly talented and skilled citizens will need to join together to get the job done right.






AN  ORGANIZED  EFFORT



REGIONAL  EARTHQUAKE  WORKGROUP

At least it appears that certain people are taking the Cascadia earthquake threat more seriously. It appears that some are listening to the warnings of the scientists and considering what must be done to prepare.

The PDF document linked below is from the Cascadia Region Earthquake Workgroup (CREW). This workgroup consists of many knowledgeable people from different fields. It speaks about things which can happen during an M9.0 megaquake, plus the magnitude of destruction which will likely occur with an earthquake of that rating.

This information is valuable to any who would like some idea of what to expect from a megaquake and how to prepare for it. One important piece of information in the document states that "the ground is expected to go on shaking for four to six minutes." That is the current expectation of scientists.


The link below accesses an earlier version of the above CREW document. This link may present slightly different information. It is also a very valuable document to examine.






ZONE  OF  SHIFTING



TELL-TALE  SIGNS

Near the beginning of this report was noted the findings of a new study. The conclusions in this study indicate that the epicenters for the next Cascadia megaquake may be far inland, relatively close to heavily populated urban areas, rather than far offshore at the so-called subduction zone.

This section will begin to examine tell-tale signs which may indicate features below the surface which could allow for megaquake epicenters far inland, possibly even directly in the midst of urban areas along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. To know what to look for, other major fault lines will be examined for unusual features.




OFFSET  WATERWAYS

A photo, linked here, shows a stream which crosses the San Andreas fault in California. At the point of crossing, the stream has shifted and there is an offset in its bed. A photo, linked here, shows part of the Yushu Fault on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. A streambed which has been offset, where it crosses the fault, is marked on the photo. The diagram, linked here, looks at another waterway being offset where it crosses a shifted fault zone.

Let us now consider a similar situation in the Cascadia region. The Columbia River travels westward through the Columbia River Gorge. It exits the Gorge and flows west to Portland, Oregon where suddenly it turns north for a distance of almost fifty miles, to Longview, Washington (shown clearly on a map, linked here). At Longview, the river again turns to the west and continues in that direction to its exit at the Pacific Ocean. This is all clearly shown in the lower portion of a map, linked here.

What appears to be happening with the Columbia River is very similar to what is happening in the picture linked here, only on a much grander scale. Yes, the Cascadia region does things in a very big way. In the linked picture, the fault runs vertically through the center of the picture. The creek beds on the left half have been shifted upward in the picture, and offset where they cross the fault zone.

A diagram, linked here, shows lateral displacement of a creek bed, where it crosses a fault zone. This is very similar to the large displacement of the Columbia River between Portland, Oregon and Longview, Washington. But, before we jump to any conclusions about there being a major north-south fault zone paralleling the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, right through heavily populated urban areas, let us examine further what is happening here.




THE  COAST  RANGES

An Oregon State University teaching aid is linked here. On PDF page 2 of 10, it states that the tectonic block model being used "shows how western North America is breaking up into smaller crustal blocks due to shear by the northward-moving Pacific Plate..."

What follows are excerpts from a U.S. Geological Survey page, linked here. It states that "the Cascadia forearc is moving northward along the west coast and breaking up into large rotating blocks." "Northward movement of the [400 km-long Oregon coastal] block breaks western Washington into smaller, seismically active blocks and compresses them against the Canadian Coast Mountains. Movement of these blocks may be up to 9 mm/yr, sufficient to produce damaging earthquakes in a broad deformation zone along block margins."

A USGS professional paper, linked here, in the left-hand column under the title of 'Geologic Setting', declares: "The Washington Coast Range and the Olympic Mountains represent part of a forearc sliver that is moving northward relative to the Cascade Range..."

A USGS map, linked here, has arrows which show the direction of "Oregon coastal block motion," along with the direction of "Washington block motions." Notice that the greatest amount of motion is generally to the west of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. The direction of movement, west of Interstate-5, is generally northward, with some northeast movement.

The link below is to an abstract on the Geological Society of America website. This abstract concerns rock studies in the coastal mountains and the inland regions of Oregon and Washington. There are unique differences noted between rocks in the coastal mountains and those in the remainder of those two states.

In regards to the differences in the rocks, the abstract states: "This suggests that the Coast Range has moved northward several hundred kilometres, relative to stable North America." As one option for what has occurred in the region, the abstract suggests that "northward displacement could reflect dextral strike-slip faulting in the North American borderland."





STRIKE-SLIP  FAULT

The USGS webpage, linked here, states: "Strike-slip faults are vertical (or nearly vertical) fractures where the blocks have mostly moved horizontally. If the block opposite an observer looking across the fault moves to the right, the slip style is termed right lateral; if the block moves to the left, the motion is termed left lateral."

The webpage, linked here, is by the Association of Bay Area Governments, in California. It has a good illustration of the type of strike-slip fault which is being dealt with in the Pacific Northwest. According to the USGS webpage, noted above, the previous link illustrates a "right lateral" strike-slip fault.

The definition for a dextral fault, linked here, shows it to be the same as a right lateral-fault. The illustrations on the page, linked here, show that a right-lateral-fault and a dextral fault are the same thing. Regarding the region of the coastal mountains, the section above states that "northward displacement could reflect dextral strike-slip faulting in the North American borderland." Let us get an accurate picture of what is happening here.

With a dextral fault defined and illustrated, let us see what is happening in the region surrounding the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. To the east of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor is the relatively stable North American tectonic plate, on which is located the Cascade Range. To the west of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, the coastal mountains are being moved northward.




OBVIOUS  CONCLUSIONS

If the coastal block or blocks in Oregon and Washington are moving northward in relation to the Cascade Range, as indicated even further by the northward offset in the Columbia River between Portland, Oregon and Longview, Washington, it would tend to imply that there may be a deep-seated and concealed, north-south-aligned fault zone through the inland Cascadia region, along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.

There is a strong possibility that this deep-seated fault zone presents a serious, north-south-aligned seismic hazard between the coastal mountains and the Cascade Range, which parallels the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. The study of continuous GPS array data, noted near the beginning of this report, also spoke of a Cascadia megaquake "with a hypocenter under the Puget Lowlands and very near the population centers of Portland, Seattle and Vancouver."

An article linked near the beginning of this report states that "slippage along the interface between the North American and Juan de Fuca tectonic plates could occur as deep as 25 kilometers below the Earth's surface." This deep-seated zone of slippage "would place the epicenters of quakes triggered along that portion of the subduction zone --- some of which could exceed magnitude 9 --- more than 60 kilometers [more than 37 miles] inland."

It appears the potential exists for stunning devastation to occur in heavily populated urban areas during the next Cascadia megaquake event. It appears that governmental agencies are preparing for a megaquake with offshore epicenters, rather than epicenters relatively close to or possibly even directly under major cities. Because of this, the ultimate devastation and list of casualties may be utterly numbing.




HUB  OF  ROTATION



GREAT  ELLIPTICAL  BASIN

The full title for the webpage linked below is 'Great elliptical basin, western United States: Evidence for top-down control of the Yellowstone hot spot and Columbia River Basalt Group.' The webpage declares: "The ellipse evidently formed in response to dextral torsion between the North American and Pacific plates..." It also states: "The short axis of the great ellipse parallels North American plate motion..." Furthermore, "the margins of the ellipse remain seismically active."

The page declares: "The High Cascade volcanic chain follows the rim of the ellipse from northern California to southern Washington." It also states: "The Columbia River Gorge crosses the Cascades along a rift that is radial to the CRBG [Columbia River Basalt Group] outbreak point..." It states further that "impingement of the Pacific plate against the North American plate initiated dextral torsion..."





DEXTRAL  TORSION  AND  THE  RIVER

The northward movement of the Pacific plate causes the landmass to move in a clockwise direction around the elliptical basin. The basin, itself, acts as a hub of rotation. This dextral torsion (clockwise flexing and rotation) in the landmass at the margins of the elliptical basin, plus the movement associated with strike-slip fault rupture during earthquakes, appears to be the reason why the Columbia River travels in a northerly direction between Portland, Oregon and Longview, Washington.




OUTER  MARGIN  ROTATION

Diagrams at the following links (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) show the clockwise rotation of the western parts of California, Oregon and Washington around the elliptical basin, based on GPS data. The USGS webpage on Ground Motion, linked here, has a map which also indicates a strong, clockwise rotation for western California, Oregon and Washington around the elliptical basin.




"WOUND  UP"  TO  "BREAKING  POINT"

The steady clockwise rotation of western California, Oregon and Washington, by the northward movement of the Pacific plate, amounts to a large spring being wound. More and more tension is steadily added. At some point, the stress in the landmass will cause it to reach its breaking point.

And, where will a portion of the massive rupture occur, as the great torsional stress is suddenly released? The writer believes the bend in the Columbia River, between Portland, Oregon and Longview, Washington, tells an important part of the story. The Mima Mounds, in the Puget Lowlands, possibly tell another part of the story.

When all of the pent up stress finally breaks things loose, it appears that part of the initial line of rupture occurs relatively close to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, rather than far offshore at what is called the Cascadia Subduction Zone.




A  DEEP  INTERCONNECTION



LOOKING  DEEPER

As the deeper geology in the Cascadia region is understood more fully, it becomes apparent that certain surface features have a special type of connection. These features, observable on the surface, hint of a much larger geologic feature deeper in the earth. This deeper feature may have a great effect on the location, size and nature of the coming Cascadia megaquake.

Vancouver Island is largely separated from the mainland of British Columbia. The gash in the landmass filled by the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound (map) are parts of a geologic puzzle. The Queen Charlotte Strait (map), between the northern end of Vancouver Island and mainland British Columbia, is another part of the puzzle.

The three bodies of water noted above, are shown together here and here. Together, they begin to tell a story about the deeper geology of Cascadia. But one more component must be included to make the picture complete. That component is the rather large, northward offset of the Columbia River, between Portland, Oregon and Longview, Washington (map).

It strongly appears that the Queen Charlotte Strait and the Strait of Georgia, in Canada, plus Puget Sound and the offset in the Columbia River are all products of a common, very deep-seated fault zone. In relation to this fault zone, the abstract on a USGS webpage, linked here, speaks of a "previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone."

The USGS page linked above states: "The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone...locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments."




THINGS  TO  NOTE

There is actually much which could be said about this "previously unrecognized, north-trending" concealed fault zone in the Puget Sound and Puget Lowlands region, which is noted in the USGS page linked in the section above. It is important to understand what this north-trending concealed fault zone truly is a part of, for it could play a significant part in the next Cascadia megaquake event and the area of greatest destruction.

At this point, there are some important things to note about this north-trending fault zone. First of all, it is noted as being active. That means things are moving here. Then, it is noted as being a "high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement..." These are important things to note, for a reason.

The dextral movement in this high-angle, strike-slip fault zones helps to identify that things are generally moving together, in a northward direction, on the western side of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. This also helps to identify the general line where slip may occur during the next Cascadia megaquake. But, there is more to this story.




THAT  NORTH-TRENDING  FAULT  ZONE

A map on PDF page 3 of 13, on a Geological Society of America Bulletin linked here, labels that high-angle, strike-slip fault as the "Coast Range Boundary fault" (CBF). On PDF page 6 of 13 is another map. On this map, the crosscutting north-trending fault zone is marked with numbers 1-8. These two maps tend to indicate that the landmass to the west of this fault zone is generally moving as a unit with the Coast Range. On PDF page 8 of 13 is further discussion on this 'North-Trending Fault Zone in Puget Sound.'

In the discussion on the north-trending fault zone in Puget Sound, it is stated that the "eight discontinuous fault strands...are inferred to represent components of a complex dextral shear zone." On PDF page 12 of 13 is further discussion on the North-Trending Fault Zone. Then, in the center column of that page, are found the following words regarding the fault-strands of the north-trending fault zone: "Larger [earthquake] events could occur if the strands of this fault zone connect at depth."

If the strands of the north-trending fault zone in the Puget Sound region connect at depth, and if they could allow for larger earthquake events in this region, what may they be a part of? Furthermore, how long could this north-trending, complex dextral shear zone actually be, especially if it forms into a larger north-trending geologic feature at depth? It is now time to begin looking at the larger picture.




ZONE  OF  DEXTRAL  DISPLACEMENT

Linked further above in the section titled 'The Coast Ranges,' in the last paragraph of that section, is something which relates directly to this north-trending concealed fault zone in the Puget Sound region. It speaks about the Coast Range moving northward, relative to the North American plate. It is noted that this "northward displacement could reflect dextral strike-slip faulting in the North American borderland."

This dextral displacement in the concealed, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone is the same thing which is happening to the Columbia River, between Portland and Longview. But, there is more to this story. In the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) document, linked here, on PDF page 8 of 13 are found two schematic block diagrams which are very important to this discussion.

In both block diagrams it should be noted that there is dextral displacement on all three of the major, north-trending fault lines passing through the Portland area. The Oatfield Fault, the Portland Hills Fault and the East Bank Fault all display dextral displacement. Again, this is exactly what has been happening on the concealed fault in the Puget Sound and Puget Lowlands region. This is the same that is happening along the Columbia River, between Portland and Longview. It appears that things to the west of the Cascade Mountains are moving northward along a line which generally parallels the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.




CORRIDOR  OF  GREATEST  SHAKING ?

To the writer, it is beginning to appear that when things break loose in the next Cascadia megaquake event, the violent slippage may take place along this line of dextral displacement which generally parallels the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. In other words, the greatest shaking may take place relatively close to, and possibly under, the major population centers in the Cascadia region.

There is something to note about the "previously unrecognized, north-trending," concealed fault zone in the Seattle area, plus the faults which pass through the city of Portland. The writer has reason to believe that all these fault zones, plus the offset in the Columbia River between Portland and Longview, are associated with the deeply buried and concealed, north-trending ancient rift.

Regarding the deeply buried, north-trending ancient rift, we are now speaking of that same rift noted earlier in this discussion. We are speaking about that giant rift which is located near the bottom of the granitic, continental landmass. This ancient rift is something to keep in mind throughout the remainder of this discussion, for it may have a great effect on the characteristics and destructive nature of the next major Cascadia event.




CIRCULAR  FAULTING

The abstract linked below is from the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. It declares: "Southwestern British Columbia and northwestern Washington State are subject to megathrust earthquakes, deep intraslab events, and earthquakes in the continental crust. Of the three types of earthquakes, the most poorly understood are the crustal events."

In this discussion, it is important to note that, of the three types of earthquakes, "the most poorly understood are the crustal events." The abstract states further: "Despite a high level of seismicity, there is no obvious correlation between the historical crustal earthquakes and the mapped surface faults of the region." It appears that the faulting which produces the "high level of seismicity" is buried beneath unbroken or well sealed layers of continental crust.


The abstract above states that in June of 1997, there were a series of earthquakes "3-4 km [2 to 2-1/2 miles] beneath the Strait of Georgia, 30 km [19 miles] to the west of Vancouver, British Columbia." It states further: "This earthquake sequence occurred in one of the few regions of persistent shallow seismic activity in southwestern British Columbia..."

In their imaging of the active fault and rupture beneath the Strait of Georgia, the researchers found that: "The rupture area is estimated to be a 1.3-km-diameter circular area..." For U.S. people, that would be a 0.8-mile-diameter (a little over 3/4-mile-diameter) circular area. Geologically, this shape is very interesting.




"NATURE'S  FRACKING"

Nature uses liquid magma, under "hydraulic pressure," to separate rock layers and rock masses, plus move them around. A relatively small injection of magma may just separate the rock layers and produce what is geologically called a "sill." A larger injection of magma can produce what is geologically called a "laccolith," which generally creates a noticeable hill on the surface of the earth. This is just simple hydraulics at work.

Illustrations showing sills and laccoliths are linked here and here. A quick animation of a sill being formed is shown in a video linked here. A short animation of a laccolith being formed is shown in a video linked here. This hydraulically-induced movement between rock layers and masses often produces earthquakes.

The earthquakes caused when Nature injects liquid magma between rock layers is very similar to earthquakes caused by the fracking process used in the oil and gas industry. Articles linked below speak of human-induced earthquakes, resulting from the use of fracking.








IN  THE  STRAIT

The persistent earthquakes below the Strait of Georgia, in "a 1.3-km-diameter circular area" are likely caused by the movement of magma lower down in the layering of the earth. At this time, it is hopefully just a sill being formed. But, under the right conditions, things can change. Under the right conditions, nature can cut loose with quite a number of surprizes --- some of which may not be very pleasant.




ANOTHER  CIRCULAR  SHAPE

The links here and here access pictures of another geologic feature which is circular in shape. Linked here and here are aerial photos of the same feature. The second aerial photo clearly shows a couple of large dikes which radiate from the central feature. Pictures at the following links (1) (2), (3) (4) (5) are close-ups of the dikes. These dikes are like large vertical walls of rock in the ground, created by the injection of liquid magma into vertical cracks forced apart in the ground. A short video, linked here, presents an animation of how dikes and sills are formed.

The pictures linked above are of Ship Rock, in the state of New Mexico. The Wikipedia entry for Shiprock, linked here, states that it "is the erosional remnant of the throat of a volcano" The webpage linked here, from the New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, declares: "The Ship Rock landform...is the remnant of an explosive volcanic eruption..." It states: "The main part of the landform is 600 meters [1,970 feet] high, and 500 meters [0.31 mile] in diameter."




THE  STRAIT  REVISITED

The eroded "remnant of an explosive volcanic eruption" in New Mexico, noted in the section above, is a little under half the diameter of the circular rupture area beneath the Strait of Georgia. At this point, some important questions will be presented.

Again, does the "persistent shallow seismic activity" indicate that magma may be moving under the Strait of Georgia? At the present time, is the continental landmass preventing any magma from escaping directly upward to the surface, while a geologic sill is created between rock layers beneath the strait?

Now, for a very important question. What could happen in the event of a Cascadia megaquake, especially if the integrity of the continental landmass is compromised above the area of pressurized magma? Could there be a major, erupting volcano formed in close proximity to Vancouver BC, and to Victoria, on the south end of Vancouver Island?




OTHER  EARTHQUAKES:  STRAIT  OF  GEORGIA

There is something interesting to note about the Strait of Georgia. About half way down in the article, linked here, is found the following: "During a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in the Strait of Georgia off British Columbia in June 1946, the seabed sunk nearly 85 feet in some places." Once the geology of the region is clearly understood, it appears that this "nearly 85 feet"  of seabed drop may be associated with a very deep-seated, concealed fault zone.

The Wikipedia entry, linked here, calls the Strait of Georgia event the "1946 Vancouver Island earthquake." This earthquake did not occur at any recognized tectonic plate boundary. It is classed as  "a crustal event." The Wikipedia entry declares: "The tectonics that caused the 1946 Vancouver Island earthquake are poorly known." The entry stresses that the earthquake was "within the continental crust, not at the margin with the Cascadia subduction zone, and certainly not inside the subduction zone itself."

The Wikipedia entry, linked above, also states: "Land subsidence resulted from the earthquake, most commonly around shorelines on the Strait of Georgia. This included the bottom of Deep Bay which sank between 2.7 m (9 ft) and 25.6 m (84 ft)." Aerial pictures looking into the unique, hook-shaped Deep Bay from the southwest are linked here and here.

It appears that, geologically, this could be a rather unstable area in the event of a Cascadia megaquake. Let us now look further at sinking features in the Cascadia region during large earthquakes, that we may better understand the deeper geology of this complex region.




LOOKING  EVEN  DEEPER

A book from 1907, linked here, is located in the Google library. This book is titled 'Ideal Power, Volume 4.' The following paragraph is found in the right-hand column of the linked, page 157.

"Charles L. Tutt, a wealthy Colorado miner, purchased an island in San Juan group in Puget Sound, intending to build a home on it. When he went to examine his purchase it was not there. Investigation proved it had completely sunk during the San Francisco earthquake. Recently, however, the island again arose to the surface. All trees and foliage on it were dead. Tutt promptly christened it Denver Island."

The American Home Encyclopedia of Useful Knowledge, from 1908, linked here, on page 66, presents a similar account of the Denver Island incident under the title of 'Mystery Island,' Excerpts from the book follow:

"Denver Island...was an extremely beautiful piece of land... Charles L. Tutt...intended to erect a summer home in the midst of a beautiful park. When Tutt went to examine his purchase it wasn't there... Investigation proved it had completely sunk beneath the water during the San Francisco earthquake, leaving several acres of water but no land.
        "Recently [in 1907] the owner received notice that his island had come up again and he lost no time in getting there. The trees and foliage were all dead and slime covered the surface once green with grass, but Tutt had recoved his property and promptly christened it Denver Island."




MORE  INFORMATION

The May 1908 issue of Pan American Magazine, linked here, starting on page 553, contains the most complete story about the sinking and rising again of Denver Island (scroll up and down in linked magazine). The magazine article starts with the following words: "Islands of the sea are known to sometimes sink beneath the ocean's surface, but it is very seldom that these same islands are known to rise again. From Puget Sound comes a well-authenticated report of the reappearance of an island in those waters."

The Pan American magazine article, linked above, states that the island "suddenly disappeared under the sea on April 18, 1906, at the time of the great seismic disturbance all along the Pacific Coast." The article also states: "The submergence of the island was evidently due to seismic disturbances, but the cause of its reappearance greatly puzzles the scientists. It has risen to about the same altitude above sea level that it formerly occupied, and the general configuration of Denver Island remains practically unchanged after its temporary submergence."

The September 1907 issue of 'Popular Mechanics,' on page 994 (link), presents virtually the same story of the sinking and rising again of Denver Island, in relation to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, as noted in the previous section titled 'Looking Even Deeper.' It must be noted that San Francisco is about 680 air miles to the south. The stories noted in this section, and that above, tend to indicate a connection to a common, very deep-seated geologic feature which resides under the continental landmass in the western part of North America.

In Oregon and Washington, it appears this deeply-concealed geologic feature generally lies near or even below the Interstate-5 freeway corridor. The southern part of this geologic feature appears to lie below the whole length of the state of California. In the north of Cascadia, the feature appears to reside below Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia. It appears to exit back out into the ocean in the region of the Queen Charlotte Strait. The nature of this feature and what it actually is, that ancient rift, has already been noted earlier in this discussion.




IN  HARMS  WAY



AT  RISK:  HANFORD ?

Epicenters for a massive Cascadia megaquake which parallels the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, rather than epicenters for the main Cascadia event being located at the offshore Cascadia Subduction Zone, may present other, very serious problems.

The article, linked below, speaks of "an interconnected [fault] system underlying the Cascades, from Puget Sound to Umtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Mountain, which loom above Hanford Nuclear Reservation..." Via this complex, interconnected fault system which passes under the Cascade Range, potentially destructive seismic energy could be brought to bear upon the region surrounding Hanford Nuclear Reservation, in Central Washington.


The following is found in the first section of the webpage linked below: "A new study by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey...found that the region's geology [surrounding Hanford Nuclear Reservation] could cause amplification of ground motion from distant earthquakes." It is important to note the use of the words "amplification of ground motion." This would not be good for Hanford or anyone else in the region of this dangerous nuclear site.


It should be noted that people are basing their concerns, in virtually every case, on a megaquake with epicenters far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone. But, what will be the devastating geologic forces brought to bear upon Hanford Nuclear Reservation, if by chance the main epicenters for the Cascadia event are much closer? What happens when these epicenters are in the region of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor?




AT  RISK:  BANGOR ?

In the Puget Sound region, there is something else to note. In the event of a Cascadia megaquake with inland epicenters, Naval Base Kitsap, with its nuclear weapons could be at high risk. The nation's Trident nuclear submarines at Bangor could also be in devastating, harms way.

Considering that, as Wikipedia states, "this Trident submarine base is the one of only two such bases operated by the U.S. Navy," the Navy could be dealing with some very serious problems both during and after a full-potential Cascadia event. People living in the Puget Sound region could also be facing some serious problems.

The Wikipedia entry, linked above, also notes that nearby the Bangor Trident base is the "Strategic Weapons Facility Pacific (SWFPAC), where missiles are stored and maintained." We are talking about nuclear issues here, not too far from heavily populated urban areas.




AT  RISK:  WHIDBEY  ISLAND  NAVAL  AIR  STATION ?

The webpage linked below declares: "Whidbey Island Naval Air Station is home to all Navy electronic attack (VAQ) squadrons in the United States. The VAQ mission-related Navy functions have been performed almost exclusively at NAS Whidbey Island since 1970, and the need for the ongoing use of Ault Field and an outlying landing field in Coupeville will continue, Navy officials say."


In the event of a massive Cascadia megaquake, is the U.S. Navy in danger of losing a certain portion, possibly even a major portion of its electronic attack capabilities associated with Whidbey Island Naval Air Station? Does this create a security risk for the United States and its citizens?




AT  RISK:  GRAND  COULEE  DAM ?

In the event of a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event, could Grand Coulee Dam be at risk? Let us consider available information. A webpage by the Montana Department of Transportation, linked here, speaks of "the Lewis and Clark Fault Zone, a series of faults that stretch between northwest Washington State and the Helena area."

Let us consider this "series of faults that stretch between northwest Washington State and the Helena area" to a greater extent. Take a close look at the map linked here. In the upper-right portion of the map is the LCZ (Lewis-Clark zone). It is important to note that the western end of the LCZ travels through the east-west portion of the Columbia River where Grand Coulee Dam is located (maps:  (1) (2) (3), plus satellite photo: (4)). But there is more to this story.

The webpage by the Montana Department of Transportation indicates that the series of faults travel all the way into northwest Washington. Do they connect with the faults in the Puget Sound region? Could a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event trigger this series of faults which pass through the area where Grand Coulee Dam is located?

It should further be noted that Grand Coulee Dam is located at the northern margin [map and map] of the Great Elliptical Basin, spoken about further above in this report. The margin of this basin is where the clockwise, torsional strain is building as a result of the northward movement of the Pacific plate, as it pushes against the western edge of the North American plate. Again, is Grand Coulee Dam at risk during a Cascadia megaquake event?

Once again, there is much more to this story of Grand Coulee Dam. A much better picture of the predicament surrounding Grand Coulee Dam is noted in the right-hand side-bar of this page, starting at the level linked here.




SEVEN  MORE  DAMS  AND  HANFORD ?

The document linked below, midway down PDF page 2 of 3, declares: "According to the NRC's own studies, a complete dam breach at Grand Coulee, whether through earthquake or terrorist act, would send a wall of water blasting out the seven dams below it on the Columbia River and reach the edges of the ultimate heat sink of the Columbia Generating Station.
      "It would destroy all primary power and water intake to the site, threatening a station blackout. The amount of infrastructure damage to the site and the surrounding communities would make restoring normal power and water supply to the site next to impossible in the short run, causing the site to rely on emergency back ups for an extended period of time. Clearly, the reactor's cooling and the integrity of its containment would be put in grave danger in such a scenario."






FOR  FURTHER  STUDY



SOME  LOSE  ENDS

There is one important thing which yet needs to be identified. Considering the geology of the region, where is the most logical location for the initial hypocenter and epicenter of the next great Cascadia megaquake event? Actually, the epicenter may be identifiable in the hours, days, weeks or months preceding the megaquake by using methods noted in the section further above regarding Nature's Predictors.


IDENTIFYING  THE  EPICENTER

Possibly one of the better ways to identify the location for the epicenter, prior to the quake, may be through the use of "earthquake clouds." This method is discussed in the nine sections relating to quake-clouds, which starts here. It appears that electric and magnetic disturances, in the hours and days leading up to a quake, may be used to help identify a coming quake and its epicenter. The use of electric and magnetic disturbances is noted here.

There can also be a large increase in atmospheric heating above the epicenter for a major earthquake, in the days prior to the event. There can also be a "significant increase in ultra-low frequency radio signals," which eminate from the earth in the region of the epicenter, for many days before the quake event. This information is presented here. Then, there is the use of CW Ham Radio signals for identifying quake epicenters. This info is linked here.


FINE-TUNING  RUPTURE  TIME

Once it is known that an earthquake is coming and where its epicenter may be located, using the methods noted above, then the general time of actual fault rupture needs to be identified more closely. One method which may be of benefit here is through observing unusual animal behaviors. This method is noted, starting here.

Actually, it may be good to look through the section on Nature's Predictors (link) a number of times and decide what may work best in your situation. Then study that method further, on your own.


DIRECTION  OF  RUPTURE ?

Another important issue is, what will be the direction or directions of epicenter propagation in the next full-rip Cascadia megaquake event? This may be a bit tougher to identify. But, possibly the earthquake cloud and how it eminates from the impending hypocenter may be of some help here. Possibly the radio signal methods, noted earlier, may hold some potential. This is definitely an area which will require more research.


CONSIDERING  THE  RIFTS

It is possibly time to begin considering the ancient rift which appears to reside under the continental landmass beneath Washington, Oregon and California. It appears that scientists are either missing or totally ignoring this deep-seated feature which can potentially have a great effect on the next Cascadia megaquake event. This feature may also be related to the more inland, crustal earthquakes along the western coastal regions of North America, including those in the Strait of Georgia.

There is also the another rift of importance in the Cascadia region. That is the giant rift which goes all the way across the United States, from Georgia to the state of Washington, which the scientists do not seem to be talking about. Yes, in Washington, this giant rift is buried deeply under lava flows, which makes it harder to examine. But, there are now investigative devices which should allow for a more thorough examination.

It does appear that the giant cross-country rift could have some effect on seismic events in the Cascadia region. There is a chance that this rift was associated with the earthquake of 1872, which was the largest earthquake recorded in the state of Washington (link). Further information relating to this giant rift is linked at this level in the right-side margin information.




THE  GREAT  SHAKING



DURATION  OF  VIOLENCE

Concerning a full-scale, offshore Cascadia megaquake event (of the nature depicted in the popular theories of the scientists), the article below declares: "Portland will feel a quake with a strength, duration and destruction never before experienced in the developed Western world."

The article speaks about six-foot-tall ground waves moving through Portland, with the shaking lasting for at least four minutes. Think about this for a minute. The ground may be undulating up and down, like waves on the ocean, with wave heights up to six feet. That is astounding!

Besides the large ground waves, the great shaking of the main quake is expected to last at least four minutes. But, as mentioned in one of the videos linked much earlier in this discussion, the shaking could last up to six minutes. This will seem like an eternity to those going through this devastating and terrifying event.






LIKE  AN  ETERNITY

Let us continue with the common Cascadia Subduction Zone megaquake scenario, as presented in the popular media. The article linked below is another person's perspective. They feel that a Cascadia megathrust earthquake can last up to five minutes. Even if it were only five minutes, the living hell and shear terror will make it seem like an eternity.


The article linked below states that it can take over five minutes to break the entire Cascadia fault. This indicates that the megaquake can potentially last for more than five minutes.


The report from King 5 News, linked below, declares: "A new report gives insight into the impacts if it [Cascadia] ruptures, causing a 9.0-magnitude earthquake that could shake the Seattle area for more than 6 minutes." Think about that "more than 6 minutes" statement again. Let its implications sink into your mind.


What is indicated in the information above is "more than 6 minutes" of strong shaking. But there is more to this story. This scenario is based on the epicenters being far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone. At this point, we should be asking a very important question.

What will it be like if the massive quakes are actually epicentered much further inland and relatively close to major population centers, as noted earlier in this report? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)   In such a case, what could be the magnitude of the intense seismic energy poured into areas of high population density, like Portland and Seattle? Furthermore, how large could the ground waves be and how long could this shaking continue?




A  DOUBLE  WHAMMY ?



POTENTIAL  FOR  MORE ?

Let us consider a scenario which no one really wants to consider. That "more than six minutes"  of shaking, noted in the section above, may be even more stunning if the epicenters for a full-rip megaquake pass relatively close to, or directly through, urban areas. But, let us consider this matter further. Is there a possibility that an inland-based megaquake could only be the beginning of the Cascadia story?




AN  EXTENDED  EVENT ?

Could an inland-based Cascadia megaquake, paralleling the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, ultimately transfer a large amount of stress to the offshore Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ)? Could this trigger a parallel M9.0 or greater megaquake at the offshore CSZ? It truly is time to ask some questions.

Is it utterly impossible for two devastating earthquakes to be occurring on two parallel fault lines within the same megaquake event? Or, would the CSZ megaquake occur shortly after the inland-based megaquake? Whatever the scenario, the Cascadia region could be experiencing a whole lot of shaking in the times ahead.




PRECEDENTS

In answer to the question about two parallel earthquakes occurring at the same time, it is time to consider a precedent in geology. Let us go even one better and consider three parallel earthquakes occurring at the same time, while creating an earthquake event which was larger than any one of the faults could produce on its own.

The webpage linked below declares: "Near Landers, Calif., seismologists had identified three faults, each capable of a magnitude-6.5 quake. Then, in 1992, an earthquake shook along all three faults at once, at a magnitude of 7.3."


Regarding complex, massive earthquakes, the webpage, linked here, declares: "What we've seen is that we can have multiple faults activated. We've seen it off Sumatra and off Japan. Once earthquakes get going they can activate faulting in areas that were thought not physically feasible."

The previous link also states: "In Japan, the Kuril Islands, and the Solomon Islands, great mega-thrust ruptures have ruptured portions of the subduction zones that were thought too warm or weak to experience earthquakes."

If massive earthquakes occurred simultaneously along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor and along the Cascadia Subduction Zone, plus on a number of other triggered faults within the Cascadia region, what could be the ultimate magnitude and duration of the devastating earthquake event?




BLINDED  BY  MODELS



ANOTHER  LESSON  FROM  JAPAN

In regards to the size of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, the webpage linked below declares: "Many researchers before Tohoku had published the tsunami records, but earthquake modelers didn't believe the geological data because their models didn't replicate them."

Here we see a serious problem in the scientific community. It appears that too much faith is put in models, even to the extent of disregarding other very important, even very key sources of information. It appears that models may have the ability to completely blind scientists to reality, in certain cases, as they "play with their expensive toys." In the process, scientists and the public can be utterly blind-sided. The result can be the unnecessary loss of many lives.





MOVED  AS  A  MASSIVE  BLOCK

Regarding the Japan earthquake, the webpage linked above contains another important piece of information, which may be of value when considering the Cascadia region. It states: "A shallow section of the subduction zone that wasn't supposed to break in an earthquake moved in a massive block..."

The page linked above notes that in a subduction zone, "the mosaic-like surface has some parts that stick and some that slide smoothly. These sticky zones are where earthquakes strike. The smooth, sliding sections, what geologists call creep, aren't supposed to have earthquakes." But, what happened in Japan?

The page states that "the entire fault ripped apart, from the sticky, deep depths to the smooth, creeping surface. The total displacement, which is the relative movement between the two plates, was a shocking 260 feet (80 meters), by some estimates."




CONSIDERING  CASCADIA

What would be the result in Cascadia if the major faults completely ripped apart, as they did in Japan? Considering that "the Cascadia trench sits much closer to the coastline than the trench off the coast of Japan (link)," what would be the result, if the subduction zone and things west of the Interstate-5 freeway all moved as a large block?

The previous link also states: "Some models predict that a Cascadia earthquake will not rupture so far under the land, but if it does, the data from the Tohoku earthquake predict stronger ground motions along our west coast than those seen in Japan."




TSUNAMIS  AND  OTHER  WATER  HAZARDS



A  GIANT  TSUNAMI

The article linked below declares: "The geology and numerical models predict tsunamis [from a Cascadia Subduction Zone megaquake] could reach as high as 80 to 100 feet in Oregon, which is similar to the tsunami that struck Sumatra."


And now for a limited look at what the Sumatra tsunami was like. Below is a link to a video of the Sumatra tsunami, taken from a balcony. Since the camera operator took off running part way through the tsunami, we do not see the ultimate height of the wave train which followed.





A  SERIES  OF  TSUNAMIS

The Wikipedia entry linked below speaks of "a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean," during the 2004 event. It declares that "230,000 people in fourteen countries" were killed by the tsunamis, which "inundating coastal communities with waves up to 30 metres (100 ft) high."


The Wikipedia entry for tsunami, linked below, declares: "Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called 'wave train.' Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events."

The entry also states: "A large tsunami may feature multiple waves arriving over a period of hours, with significant time between the wave crests. The first wave to reach the shore may not have the highest run up."


The webpage linked below declares: "A tsunami always consists of many waves or surges spaced minutes to more than an hour apart. The first surge is not the largest. The most damaging surges may arrive hours after the first and hazardous waves may arrive for twelve hours or longer."





DAM  FAILURES  AND  FLASH  FLOODS

A Wikipedia entry on 'Dam failure,' linked here, declares: "Dams are considered 'installations containing dangerous forces' under International Humanitarian Law due to the massive impact of a possible destruction on the civilian population and the environment. Dam failures are comparatively rare, but can cause immense damage and loss of life when they occur."

For those living in the Cascadia region, it may be very important to know if there is a dam or reservoir in the vicinity which could present a flood hazard in the event of a massive Cascadia megaquake. Of most concern, normally, would be compacted earth and rockfill dams. The writer will only present a few examples of these hazards in this document. Discovering hazards in the vicinity of each individual is the Reader's responsibility.




CONCERNING  OREGON  DAMS

The page accessed below declares: "Oregon's dams were graded slightly higher than the national average --- we got a C --- but problems are particularly evident in the 950 or so that are run by the state and private enterprises rather than the federal government."


The page linked below declares: "Oregon has more than 1,300 dams. Three-quarters of them are so small or remote, they're not considered very dangerous if they fail. That leaves more than 300 that emergency officials believe could threaten human life or property, if something went wrong."





POTENTIAL  DAM  FAILURES:  SOUTHERN  WILLAMETTE  VALLEY

The webpage linked below declares: "The City of Eugene 'multi hazard mitigation' program discusses the dangers of nine dams --- Cottage Grove, Dexter, Fall Creek, Dorena, Lookout Point, Blue River, Hills Creek, Cougar, Fern Ridge. Three of them had no seismic considerations when built (Cottage Grove, Dorena, Fern Ridge). The others had some seismic concerns in the design, but that was before the threat of the Cascadia Subduction Zone was fully understood. A large Valley earthquake (Richter 7?) or a Subduction Zone event off the coast (Richter 9) could breach some, if not all of the dams."


The page linked below presents information regarding a serious problem which would be created if just the Hills Creek Dam were to fail.





POTENTIAL  DAM  FAILURE:  SILVERTON,  OREGON

The webpage about the Silverton Dam and Reservoir, linked below, declares: "The Marion County Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan indicates that the major earthquake fault band across the county goes directly through the dam area and is a high hazard zone. Localized earthquakes occurred in spring 1993 and autumn 1999. The predicted subduction earthquake off the Oregon Coast (estimated as high as 9 on the Richter Scale) would likely cause the Silverton Dam to fail."

The page declares that a dam failure "will bring a wall of water down on the town [of Silverton] within a few minutes, making timely evacuation virtually impossible and causing incalculable damage over a wide area. The powerful initial wave can push debris, vehicles, and structures ahead of it."





POTENTIAL  DAM  FAILURE:  NEAR  FOREST  GROVE,  OREGON

The article linked below states: "Estimates put 4,445 people at risk in the case of flooding after a seismic event at Hagg Lake." The article also states: "The possible failure at Scoggins Dam would not be area residents' only concern, but --- depending on their proximity to the structure --- it could pose a serious and far-reaching risk to their homes and livelihoods."





POTENTIAL  DAM  FAILURE:  CENTRAL  OREGON

The people of Central Oregon were warned as far back as 1999 about the potential failure of the Wickiup Reservoir dam, in the event of an earthquake. This is noted in a June 13, 1999 article in the Eugene Register-Guard, which is linked below.

The article states: "A major earthquake could topple one of Central Oregon's largest dams, and federal officials are warning that the ensuing floodwaters would put 10,000 people in peril." People living below the reservoir were warned to evacuate immediately to higher ground at the first sign of an earthquake.

The article notes further: "If people can feel an earthquake in the area, it's probably strong enough to do something to the dam." The article states that "an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.0 could cause a catastrophic failure of the two-mile-long earthen dam."


If a Cascadia event were actually epicentered further inland, relatively close to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, rather than far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone, what could then be the effect on these dams?



POTENTIAL  DAM  FAILURES:  SKAGIT  COUNTY,  WASHINGTON

The document linked below, on PDF page 5 of 10, states: "...An earthquake in Skagit County could potentially result in the following ... Large hydroelectric dams located in eastern Skagit County and Whatcom County may be damaged or possibly fail causing possible flooding of those areas located within the 100-year and possibly the 500-year floodplain."

PDF page 7 of 10 states: "Large earthquake events may cause large-scale landslides or avalanches on steep mountains slopes as well as possible structural failure of hydroelectric dams located on the Baker River and Skagit River in Eastern Skagit County."

PDF pages 8-9 of 10 state: "Skagit County Public Utility District #1 owns and maintains two earth-fill dams located East of Mount Vernon near Gilligan Creek. These earth-fill dams contain Judy Reservoir with a total water storage capacity of 4,630 acre-feet or 1.5 billion gallons. The reservoir is located in a sparsely populated area but due to the storage capacity of the reservoir and the topography of the area, a sudden failure of either of these earth-fill dams could severely impact areas located downstream of the reservoir causing damage to homes and loss of life."





POTENTIAL  DAM  FAILURES:  THURSTON  COUNTY,  WASHINGTON

In the document linked below, PDF pages 3-4 of 62 declare: "In Thurston County...the three potential high hazard dams are Alder and La Grande Dams on the Nisqually River and the Skookumchuck Dam on the Skookumchuck River. Each of these dams could affect a population of 300 or more, inundate major transportation routes and industries, and have long term effects on water quality and wildlife."





ONLY  A  PARTIAL  LIST

Noted in the sections above is just a partial listing of dams which are at risk of failure during a Cascadia megaquake event. If the initial epicenters for the next full-potential Cascadia event are much closer to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, rather than far offshore at the subduction zone, virtually all dams in the region may be at risk of serious damage or failure. If the magnitude of the earthquake event turns out to be much greater than an M9.2, there is just that much more chance for catastrophic dam failure.




LIFE  ON  A  HOUSEBOAT



AN  IMPORTANT  QUESTION

A question has been asked of the writer concerning the safety of living in a houseboat during a Cascadia megaquake event. In this section, the writer will consider various hazards to houseboats which he sees. The experiences of houseboat residents during earthquakes, even during distant earthquakes, will also be presented.

The writer is simply presenting a few tidbits of information about houseboats and earthquakes in this section. For those seriously considering living in a houseboat, expecially in the Cascadia region, the writer would advise you to seek professional advise regarding these matters. All responsibility and liability is in your hands.




DESTRUCTIVE  WALL  OF  WATER

Living on a houseboat does present its own set of hazards, especially in the event of a massive Cascadia megaquake event. In a massive earthquake, a houseboat may be in harms way in the event of a dam failure. In this case, depending on the size of the dam and reservoir involved, there could be quite a destructive wall of water coming down the river. This wall of water could contain debris which could slam into and heavily damage a houseboat.




EFFECTS  OF  DISTANT  QUAKE

The pages linked below show the effects of a distant earthquake, centered 1,400 miles away, on houseboats on Lake Union and in Portage Bay in the Seattle area. Let us note that we are looking at houseboats on an enclosed body of water, rather than a river or a more open body of water.

In this situation, a number of houseboats "were torn from their moorings." It should be noted that, for someone standing on the ground in the Seattle area, the quake would not be felt at all. But, for houseboats, things were different. One houseboat resident stated: "It was crazy here. For anybody who lives in a houseboat, it was wild."





IN  A  DIFFERENT  QUAKE  SETTING

In scrolling down the page linked below, there is a paragraph about earthquakes. In this case, we are looking at San Francisco Bay, which is a relatively large body of water with an opening to the ocean.

The page states: "By the way, a houseboat's the best place to be in an earthquake. Houseboats move in an earthquake. I was sitting on board the houseboat during the Loma Prieta Earthquake, and the whole houseboat rolled a little bit, not much, but you could feel the shock waves 'cause the water transmits the earthquake shock waves. But the reason it's so safe is that the boat just moves with the shock."





A  PERSONAL  OPINION

Cascadia is actually very unique, geologically speaking. No one, not even the scientists, really know what Cascadia will dish out to us in a full-potential seismic event. Every situation is different. In one setting, a houseboat could possibly survive relatively unscathed, while in another setting it could be heavily damaged or destroyed. There are a considerable amount of factors to consider regarding a houseboat in a full-potential Cascadia megaquake event.

Because of all the factors involved, if someone were considering getting a houseboat in which to ride out the next Cascadia megaquake event, possibly it would be wise to obtain the advice from a number of qualified experts. And again, each situation and each setting may need to be considered on a case by case basis. And even after all this is taken into consideration, Cascadia could throw an unexpected "curve."

Personally, the writer is not ready to run out and get a houseboat, in preparation for a Cascadia event. He feels that being airborne may be the best option. But, getting airborne in a compact, personal aerial device which will stay aloft for at least one hour and is fully maneuverable, opens up a whole new set of technical challenges for the average individual.




UNRECOGNIZABLE



ALONG  THE  CORRIDOR

When all the evidence is considered, a person could begin to wonder if the authorities are setting their sights too low, regarding the true extent of devastation which will result from a full-potential Cascadia megaquake. Possibly, to a large degree, they are living in denial. Nevertheless, the closing paragraph in the article linked below contains these words: "By the time the shaking has ceased and the tsunami has receded, the region will be unrecognizable."


The Business Insider article linked below begins with these words: "The Cascadia subduction zone fault could kill thousands and render the greater Pacific Northwest unrecognizable during its next big slip." The wording used leaves the impression that more than just the coastal region would be unrecognizable after the event.


The article linked below declares: "The Pacific Northwest won't be the same after a devastating earthquake that scientists say has pretty good odds of happening in the next 50 years or less." The article states that the unrecognizable portion of the region would include "areas of Seattle, Tacoma and Olympia, as well as portions of western Oregon..." The article also states: "An entire civilization has been built on top of an area ripe for destruction, based on data we didn't have 50 years ago."





A  PERSONAL  VIEW

After considerable research, the writer has reason to believe that it will be far more than just the coastal regions which will be unrecognizable after a full-potential Cascadia event. Because of a likely location for the true epicenters of this event, the region on both sides of the Interstate-5 freeway corridor may also be unrecognizable. This would generally include the major population centers. It may also include things up to and beyond the western foothills of the Cascade Mountains.




UTTERLY  ON  YOUR  OWN



A  POINT  TO  CONSIDER

There is an extremely important point to consider in the article, linked here, about the devastating Cascadia megaquake event which is coming and everything which will be happening at that time. The realization of this important point, and being prepared accordingly, could mean the difference between life and death.

In the article, James Roddey, a spokesperson for the State of Oregon, declares: "I encourage [individual citizens] to take personal responsibility for an event like this. The white hats are not coming. The police and fire departments are going to be really busy. You're on your own."

A Canadian source, linked here, drives this point home with the following statements: "There will be no cavalry racing over the hill to save the day, no government white knights to bail anybody out. It'll be every man, woman and child for themselves." The source also states: "...A destructive quake could leave those who have not bothered to plan in a rubble heap of trouble."

This situation is something which MUST be fully realized and taken to heart by each individual citizen. We are considering an immense, possibly unprecedented amount of devastation here. The amount of devastation may be very stunning, with numerous casualties.

After a massive Cascadia event, emergency services may not be at all available to you. Yes, YOU WILL MOST LIKELY BE ON YOUR OWN. You MUST fully prepare for such a situation, both mentally and physically, unless you simply desire to resign yourself to being a statistic. One other unpleasant option, being an invalid for the rest of your life, would not be fun either.




POSSIBLY  A  VERY  LONG  TIME

After a full-scale Cascadia megaquake, citizens had better be prepared to fend for themselves for a very long time, in a very adverse environment. Government agencies may not be there to help you in your particular situation. This cannot be stressed enough. Emergency services may not be just a 911 call away, anymore. In fact, the 911 system may not be functioning at all or fully, for quite a period of time, after such a devastating megaquake event.




A  GAME  CHANGER

A Cascadia megaquake event may hold the potential for completely changing things in the region. It could utterly change our way of life. There is the possibility that life may never be the same again in this area. These are things which need to be considered and taken seriously by each individual. Only with the proper mindset is an individual able to properly prepare for such a stunning event.

The scenario being considered is so hard for us to prepare for, because it is so "foreign" to our region. It is completely outside of the "life-experience" of the average individual living in this currently mellow region. It almost seems like a fairy tale or a dream. But, unfortunately, it is real and it is coming.




GETTING  REAL

It is time to consider the historic record of great earthquakes upon this earth. Especially in megaquakes, there is virtually always loss of life. Sometimes, only relatively few are lost. But at other times, the loss of life is utterly numbing. These are things to consider, as a devastating, full-rip Cascadia event is examined.

In a major Cascadia event, there will be loss of life. This is something to understand. There is the potential for loss of friends, family members and/or loved ones. Those who have helped in life may not be there after one of these devastating events. These are real things to consider.

A person may consider, before a devastating event occurs, how they will fend for themselves without certain people in their lives. Yes, things could be somewhat lonely. But life does go on after one of these devastating events, and we must be prepared for survival. These may not be pleasant subjects to consider, but they are real. A certain portion of the population will be so affected. Hopefully, it is not you.




CONSIDERING  EARTHQUAKES  AND  VOLCANOES



A  CHANGE  IN  THINKING

The January 2005 Seattle Times article linked below declares: "Geologists used to answer with an emphatic 'No' when asked if mega-earthquakes like the one that hit Southeast Asia last week can trigger temblors on the other side of the globe. Today, some experts are not so sure. Evidence is mounting that large earthquakes can rattle geologic formations more than 1,000 miles away --- and perhaps even set off volcanic eruptions days, months or years later."





NEW  EVIDENCE

The abstract linked below, copyright by the Geological Society of America, states: "Two volcanic eruptions in the Sumatra-Andaman arc that followed the disastrous M 9.3 earthquake of 26 December 2004 raise the question of whether these eruptions were triggered by the earthquake. Here we present new evidence to suggest that earthquake-induced decompression of the volcano magma systems leads to such eruptions."





FURTHER  EVIDENCE

The 2010 National Geographic article linked below declares: "The tsunami was triggered by a magnitude 7.7 earthquake that hit at 9:42 p.m., local time, on Monday near the western island of Sumatra... A few hours later the 9,700-foot (3,000-meter) volcano Mount Merapi, on the eastern island of Java, blew a pillar of hot ash and debris into the sky..."

Chris Goldfinger, from Oregon State University, states: "Volcanic eruptions that are related to stress changes following earthquakes, or due to triggering by the seismic waves, do seem to occur. But documentation of them is spotty at best."

Goldfinger gave the following examples: "...Changes in geothermal activity in Yellowstone National Park in 2002 following a magnitude 7.9 earthquake in Alaska, and the eruption of an Andean volcano in 1960 after Chile's magnitude 9.5 megaquake."





CASCADIA  QUAKES  AND  VOLCANIC  ERUPTIONS

The abstract linked below is a product of the Fall 2005 Meeting of the American Geophysical Union. It states: "...Available GPS data appear to show the Cascade Graben is currently experiencing horizontal compression perpendicular to the axis of the graben. The compression is the result of elastic strain accumulation resulting from locking of the Cascadia subduction zone."

Regarding activity in the Three Sisters area, the abstract states: "The compression tends to lock the normal faults in the graben, however, during a large Cascadia subduction earthquake, the normal stress on the graben would reverse and promote slip on these faults. In addition, since the coseismic stress within the graben becomes extensional, this would enhance the possibility of an eruption where magma accumulation is critically stressing the crust in the Three Sisters area."

It is further stated: "Through this process of localizing coseismic strain on existing normal faults, subduction zone earthquakes may be intimately linked to both graben growth and volcanic eruptions in the Cascade graben."





FROM  THE  U.S.  GEOLOGICAL  SURVEY

The USGS webpage linked below declares: "Stress changes caused by large earthquakes may either compress or expand nearby magma reservoirs. In the former case, the compression could increase the reservoir pressure, while in the latter case, the expansion could cause tensile (opening) fractures, around the reservoir. Either way, conditions promoting eruption may become more favorable after a large nearby earthquake."

It also states: "High amplitude seismic waves passing through a magma reservoir may cause the nucleation of bubbles within the magma and/or the disturbance of previously stable layers within the reservoir. Bubble creation can increase magma pressure, and layer destabilization can cause reservoir 'overturn' where dense layers of relatively gas-poor magma sink forcing gas-rich magma to rise. Either of these events could prompt an eruption."





ANOTHER  SITUATION

The article linked below states: "Researchers as far back as Charles Darwin have noticed that volcanoes sometimes blow their top after earthquakes. And colossal earthquakes, such as the magnitude-9.0 2011 Japan earthquake and the magnitude-8.8 2010 Chile temblor, can trigger small tremors at volcanoes thousands of miles away. But pinning down a direct link between earthquakes and eruptions has eluded scientists."

But other effects from earthquakes have also been noted. The article states: "The massive earthquakes that struck Japan and Chile in 2011 and 2010, respectively, sank several big volcanoes by up to 6 inches (15 centimeters), two new studies report. This is the first time scientists have seen a string of volcanoes drop after an earthquake. Even though the mountains are on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, their descents look remarkably similar"





RETURNING  TO  CASCADIA

When considering the two massive earthquakes noted in the article linked above, and how they affected certain volcanoes, there is something to consider even further. The geology of the Cascadia region is rather unique and displays characteristics which may be far different than other subduction zones around the world. At this point, no human knows what will actually happen with the region's volcanoes during the next Cascadia megaquake event. But, there is one thing to note.

The webpage, linked here, from the harvard.edu website, declares: "Hundreds of Quaternary volcanic vents occur in the region of Three Sisters, many in alignments of coeval vents that trend nearly parallel to the graben axis. We suggest that the eruptions at vents in these lineations may have been triggered by large earthquakes in the Cascadia subduction zone, and that a large Cascadia earthquake today could trigger an eruption in the Three Sisters volcanic center."

If one or more volcanoes experienced eruptions in the midst of the next Cascadia megaquake event, it could greatly complicate the situation for citizens in the region. Depending on where the eruption occurred, there could be devastating mud-flows and flooding. If new volcanic vents were to appear, the materials from these vents could cause additional hardship or destruction in populated areas.




PORTLAND  AREA  VOLCANOES

In the Cascade Mountains are many large and potentially powerful volcanoes. A number of these have shown different degrees of activity in recent times. Possibly a Cascadia megaquake could be the ultimate trigger for these volcanoes. But there is more to consider about a Cascadia megaquake event.

There are numerous smaller, yet potentially dangerous volcanoes located directly within and around the Portland metro area. The buttons below access information on these numerous volcanic features. Zoom in on the map (just click on it) in the first link to get a better view.





CENTRAL  OREGON  VOLCANOES

There are quite a number of volcanic features east of the Cascade Mountains in Central Oregon, in the region called the High Lava Plains. The High Lava Plains (HLP) webpage, linked here, states the following:

"Starting in 2005 and extending into 2010, the HLP project seeks to establish a better understanding of why the Pacific Northwest, specifically eastern Oregon's High Lava Plains, is so volcanically active. This region, chosen for study because of its accessibility, its high volcanic flux (this the most volcanically active area of the continental United States), and its relatively young age, provides the team with an interesting and challenging problem. None of the accepted paradigms about crustal formation and magmatism fit eastern Oregon."

At this time, only a few of the volcanic features of the strange and unique HLP will be noted. The first button below accesses information about Newberry Volcano. On that page is a map which also notes the location of the McDermitt Caldera, on the southeastern border of Oregon. Another map on the page notes the locations of Lava Butte (pic 1) (pic 2) and Pilot Butte (pic 3) (pic 4), both volcanic cinder cones in the Bend, Oregon area.

The second and third buttons below access more information about Newberry Volcano. There is a question here. Could a Cascadia megaquake be the trigger which sets of this volcano? On another note, could the ongoing fracking near Newberry Volcano (link) be in any way related to the earthquake swarms in northwest Nevada (link), via the Brothers Fault Zone and other faults in the region?


There is another question which should be asked. Is there a remote chance that the fracking and earthquakes in the central and southeast Oregon region, by the transfer of stress via the Brothers Fault Zone, could ultimately have an effect on triggering the next Cascadia event?

It should be noted that the observable surface faults in the Brothers Fault Zone may be related to a much larger geologic feature which resides much deeper in the earth. There is a potential that this feature could pass under the Cascade Mountains (as other fault systems in Washington do) and intersect with the rift which appears to reside beneath the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.




THE  LAST  CASCADIA  MEGAQUAKE



THE  MEGAQUAKE  IN  1700

The document linked below, from Natural Resources Canada, presents information about a prior Cascadia megaquake. This megaquake occurred on January 26, 1700, and sent a devastating tsunami into Japan.


Regarding the 1700 Cascadia megaquake, Native American traditions shown in the link below, speak of "...a huge earthquake occurring in the middle of the night... Elders tell the young that they must run for high ground. Those who heed their warning survive, although the 'flood' waters follow close behind them.

The Native American traditions state that: "They spend a cold night in the hills, surrounded by animals who have also fled the flood. In the morning they find that all traces of their village, and all neighboring coastal villages, have been completely washed away and no one else has survived."


It is true. The next Cascadia megaquake could be similar to the quake of 1700, or it could be completely different. No one knows for sure, not even the scientists. It is even possible that it could be much worse, especially considering the major population centers and structures which now reside within the Cascadia region.




DEGREE  OF  RELEASE

There is an important question to consider in regards to the massive Cascadia earthquake in 1700. Was this earthquake the result of a guaranteed full release of all geologic stress in this region, or, does the possibility exist that it was only a partial release of the geologic stress built up in the region up to that date?

If the 1700 event was only a partial release of pent up stress, then, more than 300 years of accumulating stress has been added to any stress which remained after the 1700 event. With major earthquakes coming, since 2004, at twice the rate of the previous century, is additional stress being transferred to Cascadia at a much faster rate?

At this point, some questions must be asked. What is the Cascadia region truly facing? What is the true scenario of the next Cascadia megaquake event? Can any scientist give us a definite and accurate answer?




EFFECT  OF  EPICENTER  LOCATIONS

Earlier in this discussion, the findings of a new study were presented (link). The study indicated that epicenters for the next Cascadia megaquake may be more than 37 miles (60 km) inland (link), and "very near the population centers of Portland, Seattle and Vancouver (link)," rather than about 70 miles offshore, as more common reports declare. Let us consider a Cascadia event of this nature, in relation to the megaquake in 1700, on January 26 (link).

The 1700 Cascadia megaquake sent a tsunami flooding into Japan. From the size of the tsunami in Japan, it was estimated to have been produced by approximately an M9.0 earthquake. But, the new study mentioned above brings up an issue which may be worth considering. Suppose, for a moment, that the epicenters for the 1700 megaquake were actually far inland, near the eastern margins of the coastal hills and mountains.

With inland epicenters for the 1700 quake, what magnitude of earthquake (at the inland epicenters) would it have taken to shake the continental margin of North America strongly enough to produce a tsunami in Japan which mimicked an offshore M9.0 earthquake for North America? This may be something to consider, in preparation for the next Cascadia megaquake.




OUR  CASCADIA



IN  THE  DAYS  AHEAD

Truly, what magnitude of earthquake is Cascadia capable of producing? What kind of shaking could the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley experience, plus the coastal regions of southwest British Columbia? What could be in store for the population centers of Portland and Seattle, plus Victoria and Vancouver BC? What could happen to virtually all of our critical infrastructure?

Via the fault systems which pass under the Cascade Mountains from the Puget Sound region, could the severe shaking of a Cascadia megaquake, with inland epicenters, be powerfully transferred to the region of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation? Could harmful shaking also negatively affect our critical hydroelectric dams? In relation to this thought, let us note that Wanapum Dam, on the Columbia River, already experienced serious damage in 2014, which may have already compromised the integrity of this installation (link).

All of these questions will be answered, without any doubts remaining, in the days ahead. All "I think so's" and all "I don't think so's" will be utterly gone. At that time, cold, hard, unforgiving reality will set in.




LEARNING  GEOLOGY

More than one hundred years ago, the famous essayist, poet and philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson declared: "We learn geology the morning after the earthquake, on ghastly diagrams of cloven mountains, upheaved plains, and the dry bed of the sea."

Truly, the morning after the next full-potential Cascadia event, humanity will be utterly educated by reality. All "I think so's" ;and all "I don't think so's" will be forever washed away. We may find that commonly accepted theories within the scientific community are seriously flawed in one area or another. We may also find that a number of now popular theories and models are utterly wrong.

Considering the unique geology within the Cascadia region, it appears to hold the potential for being a master educator. It may also be a very stunning performer. Its performance could result in a major paradigm shift in geologic thinking for the region.




CONSIDERING  EXAMPLES



IN  RELATIVELY  RECENT  TIMES

There have been many examples of devastating earthquakes in recent times. For educational purposes, that we may better understand what citizens of the Cascadia region may be dealing with in the times ahead, pictures from the M7.1 and M6.3 Christchurch, New Zealand earthquakes of 2010 and 2011 are linked below. It should be noted that certain modern structures in Christchurch which were badly damage could equate to structures in Cascadia.

An Encyclopaedia Britannica entry for 'Christchurch earthquakes of 2010-11,' linked here, states that the focus for the M7.1 event "was located about 6 miles (10 km) beneath the surface. It was caused by right-lateral movement along a previously unknown regional strike-slip fault..." The focus for the M6.3 event "was relatively shallow, occurring only 3 miles (5 km) beneath the surface..."

The webpage, linked here, claims that there were about "8000 aftershocks" between the large M7.1 main quake and the devastating M6.3 aftershock. Other sources state there were 7500 quakes. Again, the focus for the large and destructive M6.3 aftershock was relatively shallow. A number of similar shallow quakes may be included in the next Cascadia event, as faults closer to the surface beneath population centers are triggered by movement on deeper geologic features.

When considering Cascadia, let us remember that the expected earthquake may be larger than an M9.0: possibly made even much larger as it triggers various, relatively shallow faults. There are also basins in the Cascadia region which can greatly increase the shaking in certain areas.

Now for the pictures from that devastating Christchurch, New Zealand event.


DAMAGED  BUILDINGS:
(M6.3, Multi-story building devastation),     (M 6.3, Collapsed section of building),     (M6.3, Devastated building),
(M6.3, Another collapsed building),     (M6.3, Collapsed Sevicke Jones Building),     (M6.3, Collapsed building),
(M6.3, Collapsed multi-story building),     (M6.3, Another view of collaped multi-story building),
(M7.1, Damaged building and lightpole),     (M6.3, Seriously damaged building),    

DAMAGED  CHURCH:
(M6.3, Collapsed church tower and portion of building),     (Before and after pictures of church tower),    

DAMAGED  HOMES:
(M6.3, Devastated House),     (M6.3, Damaged, leaning home),     (M6.3, Badly damaged home),    
(M7.1, Severe damage to home),     (M6.3, A badly damage home),     (M6.3, Structurally damaged residences),
(M6.3, Considerable damage to nice home),     (M6.3, Taken out by a slide),     (M6.3, Major damage to home),    

DAMAGED  CARS:
(M6.3, Crushed car under debris),     (M6.3, Another crushed car),     (M6.3, Another car covered with debris),
(Car in Christchurch debris field),     (M^.3, Smacked cars and debris),     (M6.3, Collapsed parking garage, with cars),

DAMAGED  ROADWAYS:
(M6.3, A sunken section of roadway),     (M6.3, Another sunken section of roadway),     (M6.3, Badly damaged road),
(M6.3, Damage to River Road),    

DAMAGED  RAILROADS:
(M7.1, Shifted and bend rails),     (M6.3, Badly distorted railroad),    



AN  ASIAN  EXAMPLE

The pictures linked below portray damage caused by an M7.8 quake in Nepal. In relation to these pictures, it should be noted that there are many unreinforced masonry buildings within the Cascadia region. They could readily experience this same fate.

(Damaged and collapsed buildings),     (Another pic of collapsed buildings),     (Another devastated building),    
(Utterly destroyed building),     (Severe devastation),    
(Nepal Earthquake:  Aerial video reveals devastation - BBC News),    
(Nepal earthquake:  Panic as strong aftershock hits Kathmandu - BBC News),    
(Nepal earthquake:  new footage shows extent of damage - video).    



BEYOND  THE  DAMAGE

There is actually much more to consider in the aftermath of a devastating earthquake. One person interviewed in the article linked below stated: "We are scared of the epidemics that may spread because of all those dead bodies. Just to be safe, I'm leaving town for a while."


The Wikipedia entry linked below speaks of the cholera epidemic in Haiti, which followed the devastating earthquake in 2010. The entry notes that "as of August 2013, [the cholera epidemic] has killed at least 8,231 Haitians and hospitalized hundreds of thousands more while spreading to neighboring countries including the Dominican Republic and Cuba." The entry states further: "Despite having made significant progress from previous years, in 2014 cholera still sends thousands to hospitals every month and remains deadly."


The document linked below may help to alleviate some concern about an epidemic in the Cascadia region, following a megaquake event. It states: "Epidemics of infectious disease are rare following natural disasters, especially in developed countries." One thing should be noted though, concerning a Cascadia event. Sources noted in this report state that in cities, the water and sewer systems may not be operating for an extended period of time. The sanitation issue could have an effect upon the spread of disease, especially if vermin are involved.





ENOUGH  BASIC  INFORMATION

After closely examining this full report, the average Reader should have some idea of what may be in store for the general populace of the Cascadia region, in the event of a devastating megaquake. The devastation from an earthquake larger than M9.0 could be much greater than that displayed in the pictures above, especially if the epicenters are relatively close to heavily populated urban areas. The triggering of shallow faults below cities could also greatly add to the devastation, plus the loss of life.




COLLATERAL  DAMAGE



THE  BONNEVILLE  SLIDE

Some time in the past, something caused a large section of solid rock, with a relatively thin covering of dirt and trees, to break loose from the mountains along the Columbia River, sending it crashing over and across the river. The document linked below presents information about the Bonneville Slide on the Columbia River, located in the vicinity of Bonneville Dam. There is something to note in the document. There is much controversy in the scientific community over the actual date of this slide.

Let us look at some excerpts from the document. It is stated: "The Bonneville Landslide, which tumbled from Table Mountain, has intrigued scientists for decades. It is the youngest and largest of four adjacent slides that make up the 14-square-mile Cascade Landslide Complex north of the Columbia near Cascade Locks and Stevenson."






DATING  THE  SLIDE

As noted in the webpage linked above, the scientific community is still debating the true date of the latest addition to the Bonneville Slide. It is written: "Radiocarbon dates taken in 1958 from drowned trees indicated that the slide occurred between 1250 and 1280." But, can we guarantee the drowned trees were not the result of land subsidence during an earlier event in the Cascadia region?

The linked page above also states: "A quarter-century later [in the 1980s], a radiocarbon date of wood samples taken from within and below the landslide deposit put the date at about 1100." Could these samples have actually originated from an earlier slide?




A  CONSIDERATION

Is it possible that the massive slide in 1700 could have "dredged up" or "scoured up" some of the debris from one of the earlier slides, as it violently passed over it? Could this earlier debris have then been intermixed within the material of a younger flow, in 1700? This would allow an older date to be given to the younger flow, if samples tested by scientists had originally come from one of the older flows.




MORE  RECENT  INFORMATION

The webpage, linked above, states: "...Pringle and Robert L. Schuster of the U.S. Geological Survey had radiocarbon dates taken of a buried Douglas fir that indicated the tree died between 1500 and 1760. That would place the slide close to the earthquake in 1700 that devastated the Northwest coast. Counting the tree rings, with each ring representing one year of the tree's life, they estimated that the tree died in about 1699."

The page notes that in more recent times, Nathaniel D. Reynolds "used a technique called lichenometry to estimate the age of the Bonneville Landslide." His findings, linked here, indicate that "the landslide probably happened between 1670 and 1760." The article declares: "The dates 'provocatively bracket' the powerful offshore Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake of 1700."




MOTIVATING  FORCE

Please note, in the link at the top of this section, that the Bonneville Landslide is "the youngest and largest of four adjacent slides that make up the 14-square-mile Cascade Landslide Complex..." The United States Geological Survey (USGS) website, linked below, contains the same Oregonian article from which this information came. But, there is much more on the USGS webpage.

The article on the USGS page states: "The Bonneville Landslide in the Columbia Gorge [is] about 30 miles east of Portland..." The article declares that "...scientists are confident a quake caused the landslide..."


The webpage linked below declares: "Table Mountain's sheer face is the result of an earthquake either 550-300 yrs ago (debate still ongoing) which shook the landscape so hard that the massive south face slipped off and slide down to push the Columbia River one mile south and temporarily block it with a 300-ft [tall] rubble dam."


The PDF magazine linked below is called "Oregon Geology." It is a publication of the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI). Page 1 or 24 has an excellent picture of the Bonneville Slide, with the sheer face of Table Mountain in the background. On PDF page 2 of 24 is found the "Cover photo" information.

The cover photo information declares: "The massive Bonneville slide into the Columbia Gorge has been recently dated at 300 years in the past. This places the slide at the same time as the last big subduction earthquake, suggesting that this seismic event may have triggered the landslide."





A  POWERFUL  EARTHQUAKE

The evidence, noted above, indicates that it was an exceedingly powerful earthquake which shook loose a major portion of Table Mountain and sent it crashing into and across the Columbia River. The large volume of debris created an earthen dam 300-400 feet high, across the river (1) (2). The pictures, linked below, show different views of this massive mountain of solid rock which was ripped apart.






THE  EARTHQUAKE  CONSIDERED

Let us look further at the massive slide from Table Mountain. What magnitude of powerful earthquake would it have taken to shake apart this massive mountain of solid rock and send it crashing across the Columbia River? How strong of a Cascadia earthquake would it have required, especially if the epicenters were, by chance, located far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone?

If the epicenters for a Cascadia megaquake were located at the offshore subduction zone, would the magnitude required to break apart a very distant Table Mountain be far in excess of the size required to produce the orphan tsunami which struck Japan in 1700? Is it time to get more realistic and look at a more logical location for the epicenters of the massive earthquake which took down a large portion of Table Mountain?

Yes, let us consider something more realistic and logical. The USGS page linked further above, states that the Bonneville slide is located "about 30 miles east of Portland." Portland is where the Columbia River suddenly turns north, as it apparently crosses a large concealed fault zone. As noted earlier in this report, the river is offset about 50 miles, where it crosses the fault zone. Now, for some important questions.

What magnitude of a Cascadia regional earthquake would it have taken to break apart Table Mountain, plus produce the size of orphan tsunami which struck Japan in 1700, if the epicenters for the earthquakes were located relatively close to the present Interstate-5 freeway corridor? Does this present a more realistic scenario for that extremely powerful earthquake event which violently shook down a large part of Table Mountain?



THOSE  OTHER  THREE

It was noted earlier that the Bonneville Landslide is "the youngest and largest of four adjacent slides that make up the 14-square-mile Cascade Landslide Complex." At this point, there is something to consider. It is possible that the three older slides could have occurred during earlier Cascadia megaquake events?

Let us now get right down to business. Is there any possibility that each of these earlier megaquake events, along with that of 1700, helped to offset the Columbia River to a greater extent between what is now Portland, Oregon and Longview, Washington? Was it dextral displacement caused by major earth movements which offset the river to that which we see today?




BOTTOM  LINE

Whatever is the exact date of the massive slides and drowned forests on the Columbia River in the Bonneville region, these features appear to be the results of powerful earthquakes. If previous Cascadia megaquakes had epicenters near the eastern margins of the coastal mountains and hills, relatively close to what is now the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, this may have brought a lot of heavy shaking to bear in the region of the Bonneville slide.

At this point, some important questions need to be asked. If the epicenters for the next Cascadia megaquake travel relatively near to the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, could there be additional, possibly damaging, large-scale slides in the Columbia Gorge? Could Bonneville Dam be at risk of failure, at a time like this? Could other dams in the region be at risk during a megaquake event? Could there be loss of life or property, resulting from a failed dam or dams?




BONNEVILLE  DAM  REGION

Regarding Bonneville Dam and the area around it, the webpage linked below, about one-third of the way down the page, under the heading of 'Current Hazards,' states the following:

"The Cascade Landslide Complex is perhaps one of the more dangerous landslides in Washington State. The Bonneville Dam sits on the landslide debris of the Bonneville Landslide. Major pipelines, powerlines, and transportation routes cross the landslide. Future movements (potentially during a Cascadia Subduction Earthquake) would result in major disruptions in utilities and the potential for the redamming of the Columbia River."

Considering a large slide along the Columbia River further, the page states: "The other problem, it might not occur in the Cascade Landslide Complex at all, large landslides dot the area surrounding this area and some might have the potential to also partially or completely block the Columbia River. A damming of the Columbia River would be devastating."


Even a massive landslide which did not completely dam the river could be very devastating, especially if it came down on Bonneville Dam and its powerhouses. It does appear that the potential exists for a serious dam failure, in a large enough Cascadia megaquake event, especially if epicenters are relatively near the Interstate-5 freeway corridor.




VIEWS  OF  BONNEVILLE  SLIDE

The links below access pictures of the Bonneville Slide from different vantage points. The first photo linked below shows the Bonneville Slide, looking from the Oregon side of the Columbia River, northward into Washington. Note how the slide flowed right across the river, toward Oregon. Originally, the slide formed a large debris dam, which sealed off the river and formed a large lake.


In the photo above, the mountains which the slide came from are in the upper-left corner. What magnitude of earthquakes would it have taken to put such a shallow slope on the lower portion of this massive slide? Indeed, it must have been very great!

The U.S Army Corps of Engineers photo, linked below, is looking upstream from below Bonneville Dam. This photo clearly shows the size of the Table Mountain Landslide (the Bonneville Slide), which actually dammed up the river in earlier times.

Again, in the photo below, note the very gentle slope of this massive slide. Table Mountain, from which the slide came, would be off the left edge of the photo. Indeed, the earthquakes which created this slide must have been massive. Possibly they were earthquakes which helped offset the Columbia River between Portland, Oregon and Longview, Washington to a greater extent.






THE  SLIDE  FROM  ABOVE

The photo linked below is looking straight down on the Bonneville Slide, from high altitude. The slide is in the lower-center of the photo. The mountains from which the slide came are near the left edge of the photo. The shear size of the slide that earlier blocked the Columbia River is clearly evident in this photo.


In the aerial photo linked below, it is even easier to see the size of the Bonneville Slide, which formerly blocked the Columbia River.


The high-altitude aerial photo below has an overlay which includes labels for the Bonneville Slide Complex, Bridge of the Gods, Possible Area of River Blockage, and Bonneville Dam.

Note that Bonneville Dam is shown to be located directly within the slide debris field. This fill material in a debris field may not be a good place for a major dam to be located, especially during the next Cascadia megaquake.






VULNERABLE  INFRASTRUCTURE



ALASKAN  WAY  VIADUCT

The photo, linked here, shows the double-decked Alaskan Way Viaduct in Seattle, Washington. A Wikipedia entry, linked here, states that "The 2001 Nisqually earthquake damaged the viaduct and its supporting Alaskan Way Seawall..." The 2001 Nisqually earthquake (link) only "measured 6.8 on the moment magnitude scale and lasted approximately 45 seconds." Nevertheless, (link) "semi-annual inspections have discovered continuing settlement damage."

In an M9.0-plus earthquake measured in minutes, the Alaskan Way Viaduct would likely collapse, along with the Seattle Empire Laundry building, which is notched into the viaduct at 50 feet in the air (photo). There may be a number of lives lost when these structures collapse. The actual number will depend on the time of day when the collapses occur.




VIADUCT  REPLACEMENT  TUNNEL

Because of damage to the Alaskan Way Viaduct by the 2001 earthquake, a decision was made to replace it with a bored tunnel, currently called the Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel (link). This boring project has been fraught with problems. These problems are noted in the following links: Bertha, Pioneer Square, Tunnel study (2 pages), Sinking feeling.

Let us now consider the ground makeup surrounding this tunnel project. First, it appears the ground is sinking in the area of the stuck boring machine (link). An article, linked here, notes that the tunnel route is "through abrasive, waterlogged soil..." Now for some questions.

In the event of a devastating Cascadia megaquake, especially one with inland epicenters near or through Seattle, what will happen to this "abrasive, waterlogged soil" surrounding the tunnel? Will it liquify? Could it become like quicksand?

Could the great shaking during a megaquake fracture the tunnel in a liquified environment, causing it to fail with people inside, with undesirable results? Could buildings sink in the liquified soil and cause further damage to the tunnel, even hampering rescue efforts? In the Cascadia region, is this tunnel really a good idea, especially when being built so close to water?




ROADS,  BRIDGES,  ETC.

The webpage linked below presents information about the Cascadia Lifelines Program. The page also speaks about the results of a Cascadia megaquake, as it declares: "Looming in Oregon's future is a massive earthquake of about magnitude 9.0, which could significantly damage Pacific Northwest roads, bridges, buildings, sewers, gas and water lines, electrical system and much more."

In the webpage, Scott Ashford, director of the Cascadia Lifelines Program, declares: "Most of Oregon's buildings, roads, bridges and infrastructure were built at a time when it was believed the state was not subject to major earthquakes. Because of that we're going to face serious levels of destruction."


Oregon will experience a considerable amount of destroyed infrastructure during a full-scale Cascadia megaquake event, and Washington will not be spared, either. Washington will also experience the full effects of this very devastating event, losing a considerable amount of infrastructure: likely far more than people (including the experts) expect.

The Cascadia Regional Earthquake Workshop (CREW) reports, found in a section above, speak of a considerable amount of damage to bridges, roads and overpasses in the Cascadia region. They also speak of many collapsing structures. But, there is one important issue to note.

The CREW reports, plus virtually all other reports found via the Internet, are based on an M9.0 megaquake scenario, with epicenters located far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone. What will the elevated level of devastation be throughout the Cascadia region, if by chance the epicenters are actually located far inland, near heavily populated urban areas?




DAMS

The webpage linked below is by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. They are the federal agency involved with large hydroelectric projects (yes, dams) in the Cascadia region.

The webpage optimistically declares: "The historical performance of dams in seismic events has been exceptionally good. Only one concrete dam in modern history has ever failed as the result of a seismic event, mainly due to the fault running directly beneath it. Generally, concrete dams have sustained only minor damage." To this, it should be noted that there are dams in the Cascadia region with faults running beneath them, even major faults.

The page also presents some very crucial information. It declares: "The likelihood of a complete dam failure as the result of a seismic event depends on the size and location of earthquake, the reservoir level, the dam's current operational status, and a host of other factors."


Now, let us consider what the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is basing all their dam optimism on. The page linked above clearly states: "Scientists tell us that the Pacific Northwest is due for a very large earthquake --- possibly as large as magnitude 9.0 --- from the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the Pacific coast. Such a large earthquake could potentially impact our dams."

Yes, another government agency is making safety claims, based on a Cascadia megaquake scenario with epicenters located far offshore at the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone. What will government agencies be saying if by change the epicenters occur far inland, relatively close to heavily populated urban areas along the Interstate-5 freeway corridor?

How well will dams in the Cascadia region survive, especially the numerous compacted earth and rockfill dams, if the next Cascadia quake is much larger than an M9.0 and parallels the Interstate-5 freeway corridor, much further inland than expected by the experts? What will be the effect when intense seismic energy is transferred eastward, and in all directions, toward many important dams, via the the triggering of numerous upper-level faults in the Cascadia region?




WIND  FARMS

When considering a Cascadia megaquake event and potential landslides in the Columbia Gorge, there is another, relatively minor issue to consider.

Just how much earth movement can a large, industrial-size wind turbine handle? Yes, wind turbines did survive the powerful Japanese megaquake in 2011, which actually had an epicenter located far offshore. But, there are things to consider with the unique geology in the Cascadia region, plus the nature of the shaking if the epicenters are located much further inland. Under these conditions, will wind turbines in the Pacific Northwest be so lucky?

What would happen if a turbine's blades were spinning rapidly, when the next Cascadia megaquake occurs? What would happen if suddenly the tower is jerked back and forth for possibly many feet, for a number of minutes? Could the stress forces produced under these circumstances cause the turbine and/or tower to fail catastrophically?

There is something to consider. How many hundreds of wind turbines are there in the Columbia River region, plus other areas in Cascadia? The pages linked below give a few examples of the many wind farms and turbines in the region, plus plans for even more of them. And yes, the greater the number of turbines, the greater the chance of experiencing one or more catastrophic failures during a Cascadia megaquake.



Turbine failures during a Cascadia event could reduce electrical production capabilities in the region at the worst possible time, for possibly an extended period of time. But there is something even far more serious to consider.




CRITICAL  ENERGY  INFRASTRUCTURE  HUB

The webpage linked here and elsewhere on this page declares: "Most of Oregon's fuel supply arrives to the 'Critical Energy Infrastructure Hub,' a six-mile stretch of fuel storage tanks and refineries next to the Willamette River between the St. Johns and Fremont Bridges --- all built atop vulnerable fill and alluvial deposits."

The webpage linked here and elsewhere on this page, at the bottom of page 14 or 20 shows the location and a picture of the vulnerable fuel storage facility next to the Willamette River.

The button below accesses an interactive aerial photo of the Critical Energy Infrastructure (CEI) Hub. It also shows the Willamette River and the Portland Hills Fault, which both parallel the six mile long CEI Hub.


The article linked below declares that, in the event of a Cascadia megaquake, Oregon's Critical Energy Infrastructure (CEI) hub "could become Oregon's Achilles heel... Its structures were built on soils prone to liquefaction and lateral spreading." A State of Oregon report declares: "Multiple liquid fuel transmission pipe breaks and natural gas transmission pipe breaks are possible. Damage to liquid fuel, natural gas and electrical facilities in the CEI Hub is likely."


There is something even more disturbing in the article above. It states that tanks at the CEI hub are "holding only a three-to-five-day supply [of petroleum products] for the state."

But, in the aftermath of a Cascadia megaquake event, a portion of that fuel may be lost. If pipelines are damaged and new products do not or cannot arrive via the river, the supply could not be replenished. It is also possible that any remaining fuel will be strictly earmarked for emergency efforts. That would leave none for use by private citizens.

A 157-page government report about Oregon's Critical Energy Infrastructure Hub (CEI) is accessed via the button below. On page 5, it declares: "Oregon's critical energy infrastructure Hub is located in an area with significant seismic hazard. Significant liquid fuel, natural gas and electrical infrastructure and facilities are situated in this relatively small area in Portland."

Page 12 of the report below declares: "Due to a combination of the existing seismic hazards, vulnerability of the exposed infrastructure and potential consequences, Cascadia earthquakes pose substantial risk to the CEI Hub and to Oregon."






OTHER  FACILITIES

The CEI Hub is only one place of concern. There are other similar facilities in the Cascadia region, especially around Puget Sound. One is the BP Harbor Island Terminal. Any one of these bulk fuel storage facilities could experience a serious failure during the next Cascadia megaquake, especially if the quake epicenters passed near the eastern margin of the coastal mountains and hills, rather than far offshore in the Pacific Ocean. A serious failure could result in a large environmental disaster, plus present a serious fire hazard.

In the Cascadia region are a number of important pipelines for natural gas and other fuels. Maps at the following links (1) (2) (3) show the general routes for some of the more major pipelines. Besides those shown on the maps, there are many other critical pipelines. Any of these pipelines in the Cascadia region could be seriously damaged during the next megaquake event.

This report has noted a variety of facilities which could be damaged or destroyed during a Cascadia megaquake event. But this is only a starting point. Virtually everything in the region is at risk during a megaquake event. Only in the aftermath of such a major and unpredictable event, will anyone know the true answer to what was able to survive.




SKAGIT  COUNTY,  WASHINGTON

The Skagit County, Washington document, linked below, declares: "...All commercial and residential buildings, government infrastructure, transportation systems, communication systems, utilities, and ultimately, the overall economy of Skagit County are vulnerable to the effects and impacts of a large earthquake."

The document states further: "Large earthquake events may cause large-scale landslides or avalanches on steep mountains slopes as well as possible structural failure of hydroelectric dams located on the Baker River and Skagit River in Eastern Skagit County." The document also speaks of bridge failures.


The document above speaks of the vulnerability of the City of Anacortes, Port of Anacortes, as well as the Shell and Tesoro oil refineries located on Marches Point in western Skagit County..." It also notes the vulnerability of the Olympic Pipe Line Company's "20 million gallon fuel storage tank facility and pump station within Skagit County."




PREVIOUS  CASCADIA  MEGAQUAKES



EARLIER  MEGAQUAKE  YEARS

It is time to consider the estimated dates for earlier, known Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquakes. These occurred prior to the event in 1700. Below are links to relevant information.

The Wikipedia entry for the 1700 Cascadia earthquake indicates that earlier megaquakes occurred in about 1310 AD, 810 AD, 400 AD, 170 BC, and 600 BC.


The Cascadia Region Earthquake Workgroup (CREW) document, linked below, confirms the dates shown in the Wikipedia entry. It also adds this following bit of information: "Recent evidence suggests that the northern part of the Cascadia fault has a major earthquake every 525 years on average. The southern part, however, has one every 278 years on average."

The implications of the term "on average" is very important for us to consider further. Documentation shown earlier in this report indicate that Cascadia megaquakes can be at intervals as close as 100 years. It should also be noted that, beginning in 2004, megaquakes around the Pacific Ring of Fire are occurring at twice the rate of the previous century. This could indicate that seismic stress is being transferred to the locked Cascadia region at a much faster rate. This may translate into sooner and more violent megaquakes.





EVIDENCE  OF  MANY  MONSTER  QUAKES

In the article linked below, Goldfinger, a researcher from Oregon State University, initially located evidence for 20 Cascadia megaquakes. Then he found evidence for 18 more giant quakes on the southern portion of Cascadia. That gives at least 38 confirmed, devastating earthquakes in the Cascadia region in what is said to be 10,000 years.

The article declares further: "...Instead of thinking giant quakes occur every 500 years, Goldfinger's work puts the cycle at 300 to 350 years." So, anyway you look at it, we may be overdue for another monster quake.


An important statement from the above article now follows. "The amount of devastation is going to be unbelievable," says Rob Witter, coastal geologist with the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. "People aren't going to be ready for this. Even if they are prepared, they are going to be surprised by the level of devastation."




FOR  YOUR  CONSIDERATION



CONCLUSIONS

It is clear that the West Coast of the U.S. and Canada is earthquake country. This region is also very unpredictable, besides holding the potential for being very devastating, megaquake country. Now is the time for each individual to take things seriously and become properly educated and prepared, to the best of their ability, in order to increase their chances of long-term survival in the Cascadia region.

Those who desire to spend all their time living in "La La Land" and being entertained may rapidly become a statistic during the next Cascadia megaquake event. Nature can be very brutal and very cold. Businesses which do not take the earthquake hazard seriously in Cascadia, and those businesses which do not properly prepare, may ultimately be found in the numerous "FAILED" reports.

Governments, public officials and emergency coordinators which do not properly prepare for a Cascadia megaquake event may ultimately be accused of utter dereliction of duty. Government entities and their affiliates who work to turn people away from information which shows a Cascadia earthquake hazard with a potential much greater than that presented by the so-called "scientific concensus" should be held directly accountable for each and every death which occurs in the next full-potential Cascadia megaquake event.








FURTHER  INFORMATION


















OF  POTENTIAL  INTEREST













WHAT  FORUMS  ARE  SAYING

Below are links to forums which discuss earthquakes and the coming Cascadia event. Sometimes it is good to consider what other people in the region are saying, especially those who have some knowledge of geology and Cascadia, or have had first-hand earthquake experience.







NOTES

[1]     This report is a non-funded work in progress. This page receives updates and additional information, as the author has time for research and writing, with his busy schedule. At times, there have been multiple updates in one day. To make sure that you do not miss any important additions which could have an impact on the overall picture, and to ensure that you are viewing the most current version of this page, just click on your browsers update/refesh button each time prior to viewing.

[2]     You may like to do further Internet research on Cascadia earthquakes, abnormal animal behavior, and other associated earthquake phenomena, plus predicting. Of interest may also be earthquake lights and earthquake smells, plus other subjects. A normal "Google" search works for basic things. But for the dedicated researcher, "Google Scholar" (http://scholar.google.com/) may provide another level of information.





Current Expectations for a Cascadia Mega-Quake

INDEX FOR SECTION-TITLES --- PLACED IN ORDER OF DOCUMENT

Click on the Section-Title links below to go directly to the level of your chosen section. Then pan left or right, if necessary.

NOTE --- Click on your browser's REFRESH button to view the latest updates to this document.

          LEFT SIDE MARGIN           MIDDLE MAIN COLUMN           RIGHT SIDE MARGIN


This page was initially posted on the Internet more than two years ago. This page has been heavily advertised on Internet boards which are picked up by the search engines. But, it appears that this report is being censored by the search engines.

It appears that someone does not want you to see the evidence and "picture" which is presented in this report. Why could this be? For starters, possibly because this report does not fully support the so-called "scientific consensus" and what is being presented in the controlled, mainstream media. Furthermore, it appears that someone does not want the general public to know the facts which may aid them in becoming better prepared for what may actually be happening during the next Cascadia event. Why could this possibly be?

One individual emailed the following questions. "Why would they hide the facts? They don't want us ready so we'll all die?" These are very good questions. After an Internet search, the information linked below was located. Check out the information for yourself and see if it could present a possible motive for someone to not want people to be properly prepared for the Cascadia event we may actually be facing.


It is time to start "connecting the dots" and looking at the big picture of what is actually happening in our world. Then pass the word to others and do your best to prepare. We may be facing a bigger fight for survival, than most people realize.

Financial gifts toward this Cascadia project would be greatly appreciated. To make arrangements for sending gifts, contact the writer via email at desakrisson2@hotmail.com   Thank you.
Pages associated with this site were originally (from January 2006 to January 2015) hosted at http://desakrisson.topcities.com     Cascadia pages from that site are now located here and
fuel/engine project pages are located at http://twinfuel.50webs.com   This site network is constructed, updated and Copyright © 2006-2017 by David E. Sakrisson.   All Rights Reserved.


A Heart Stopper

There is a side of earthquake events which most people possibly do not consider. That is the noticeable increase in the number of deaths associated with earthquakes which are not the result of injuries or being crushed, but rather are the result of heart attacks, both during and in the period following the main quake event.

The page linked below declares: "Heart attacks spiked in Christchurch, New Zealand in the areas struck hardest by a set of 2010 and 2011 earthquakes during the year after the tremblers, a new study shows."


It appears that middle-aged and older people are the ones most affected in this manner. But, younger people can also be similarly affected. The bottom line is this: It appears that stress-induced cardiovascular problems are the main killer in these situations.

The page linked above notes that after Hurrican Katrina, at one New Orleans hospital, "hospitalization rates for acute heart attacks tripled." So, the health or strength of your heart is something to consider, when facing major natural disasters.


During the Event

The KTLA.com page linked below states: "The chance of suffering a heart attack increases 70% during the first week of an earthquake and stays high for the following weeks after."

The included 2 minute Health Smart video is something to watch. Then consider yourself and those around you who may be more susceptible to heart attacks during quakes, plus what to do about it.



The page, linked below, states: "An earthquake is one of the most frightening natural events that might hit a human community. When such a terrifying natural disaster occurs, the high death toll that is usually paid comes not only from injuries related to the destruction of buildings or road accidents but also from sudden death resulting from cardiovascular problems..."



The page accessed below delares: "Kiwi researchers believe the stress brought on by earthquakes can lead to an increase in heart attacks."

These researchers found that after two quakes in New Zealand, there was "a significant increase in health issues in the following 12 months."

This increase in health issues "included 10 per cent more hospitalisations for cardiovascular complaints, 22 per cent more hospitalisations for heart attacks and 25 per cent more deaths from cardiovascular disease."


It should be noted that this percentage of increase in health issues, noted in New Zealand, was related to much smaller quakes than the event which is expected in the Cascadia region.


Additional Cardio Info

The pages linked below present further information about the relationship between earthquakes and the increase in serious or fatal heart attacks, plus other health issues.

By becoming informed and psychologically prepared for a massive Cascadia quake, hopefully, you may help to reduce your stress and chance of heart attack, when the event actually takes place.

By becoming properly prepared for a major natural disaster and knowing what you must do to survive, should help to reduce your stress. Why? Because knowing what to expect and what to do may, in its own strange way, give you some peace of mind.







A potential, large increase in heart attacks during and after a massive Cascadia quake event is something for emergency planners to take into consideration, as they prepare for the coming event.





Hanford Reservation

It is time to consider something which does have some people concerned. Could the facilities at Hanford Nuclear Reservation be compromised in the event of a major Cascadia seismic event? If so, by what avenue?

The article linked below speaks about an "interconnected system [of faults] underlying the Cascades, from Puget Sound to Umtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Mountain, which loom above Hanford Nuclear Reservation..."



The article linked below declares: "The region's most dangerous surface fault is believed to be the South Whidbey Island Fault.
    "...The Whidbey fault crosses through the Cascade Range, reaching as far as the Tri-Cities in southeast Washington."
    "The Seattle Fault...the South Widbey Island Fault...Together, they form a system that extends across the Cascade Range to the Hanford Reservation."



On page two of the PDF file linked below is found the following:
    "The Hanford Nuclear Reservation has 11 known fault lines. The Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt, which these fault lines are part of, is now believed by USGS researchers to be linked to the Cascadia subduction zone."



The webpage linked below is from the Washington Nuclear Museum and Educational Center (WANMEC). If has the following to say:

"Since being built [Hanford, Columbia Generating Station], scientists have confirmed that geologic faults run from Richland across the Cascades as far west as Vancouver Island.
    "These faults are capable of generating an earthquake as powerful as magnitude 7.5."



It appears that in the event of a Cascadia megaquake, Hanford Nuclear Reservation may be at risk via the faults which extend under the Cascades and into the Hanford region.

Hanford may be at even a much greater risk if the epicenters for the next Cascadia megaquake pass far inland, near the eastern slopes of the coastal hills and mountains, rather than far offshore in the Pacific Ocean at what is commonly called the Cascadia Subduction Zone.

An M7.5 earthquake is far in excess of what the nuclear power plant at Hanford is designed to withstand.  This major of a quake could also devastate the dangerous Vitrification Plant at Hanford, causing a massive release of deadly radiation which could prove to be extremely hard to contain and control. Let the nuclear facilities at Fukushima, Japan, be an example for us.


Further Reading







Dam Failures

According to Wikipedia (link), Grand Coulee Dam "is the largest electric power-producing facility in the United States." The reservoir behind the dam is also used for irrigating the agricultural lands in the region. Therefore, this is an extremely important facility to the United States.

In relation to Grand Coulee Dam, the document linked below contains a very important piece of information regarding what could happen if Grand Coulee Dam were to fail. It declares:

"According to the NRC's own studies, a complete dam breach at Grand Coulee, whether through earthquake or terrorist act, would send a wall of water blasting out the seven dams below it on the Columbia River..."



The map linked below shows the general location of dams on the Columbia River, below Grand Coulee Dam, plus dams on the Snake River. Grand Coulee Dam is found in the upper-center of the map.

It should be noted that the failure of Grand Coulee Dam may not necessarily present problems for dams on the Snake River, at least not dams further up the river.



The failure of Grand Coulee Dam could result in a great amount of additional damage downstream, besides wiping out seven other dams, in the event of a Cascadia megaquake.


A Closer Look

For the record, there is a major fault line or zone which is said to start in Montana and appears to have a western extension which passes through the vicinity of Grand Coulee Dam. From there, it appears the fault continues westward to the Puget Sound area.

The fault being talked about is noted in the lower left portion of the Montana Department of Transportation webpage linked below. It is called the Lewis and Clark Fault Zone.



The map linked below, in the upper-right area, shows the Lewis & Clark Fault Zone (LCZ) coming out of Montana and continuing westward into the section of the Columbia River which contains Grand Coulee Dam and the reservoir immediately behind it.



The webpage linked here, on PDF page 2 of 8, shows a very similar m But, there is something to note on this particular map. Once the LCZ passes into Washington state, it appears to be called the Cheney Fault Zone (CFZ).

Now, is there any proof that Grand Coulee Dam actually sits in a fault zone? In answer, consider the information which follows.


Beneath Grand Coulee

The information linked via the button below is from a Washington State University Libraries webpage. It speaks about bedrock preparations for the construction of Grand Coulee Dam.

The link speaks about a deep hole which was excavated into the bedrock beneath the dam. Why was this deep hole made? Because there were deep fissures in the bedrock which needed work.

The information linked below also speaks about several slides which occurred during excavation for the eastern portion of the dam. The slides possibly occurred because of fissures throughout a fault zone associated with the dam area.


The text linked above clearly speaks of these deep fissures as being fault zones, plus indicates further that they are part of "an ancient fault line." The map, once again linked here, would tend to indicate that this ancient fault line is part of the Lewis & Clark Fault Zone.

The picture linked below shows a portion of the excavated fault zone which resides beneath the eastern portion of Grand Coulee Dam.


What further information is there regarding faults which are associated with Grand Coulee Dam?

The button below accesses part of a biography about John Lucian Savage. He was one of the main people involved with the construction of Grand Coulee Dam.

In relation to the construction of Grand Coulee Dam, PDF page 7 of 16 speaks of "the treatment of extensive shear zones at Grand Coulee Dam by un-precedented grouting..."



The button below accesses the Washington State University Libraries Digital Collections. The webpage includes links to 34 articles relating to the large job of grouting the bedrock beneath the west end of Grand Coulee Dam to seal fissures.

Item #15 speaks of concrete being used to seal a fault in the bedrock below the western portion of the dam. So not only does Grand Coulee Dam have faults under the eastern section, but there is faulting under the western section.



Let us look further into this faulting which is associated with Grand Coulee Dam, plus the ancient fault zone of which this faulting is a part.

The webpage linked below speaks mainly about the portion of the Lewis & Clark Fault Zone which resides in Idaho and Montana, and states the following:

"The Lewis and Clark Zone is a megashear in the earth's crust, up to 30 miles wide..." It states further: "Geologic studies have shown that the North American plate has been sheared along this zone repeatedly..."



A question should be asked. Because of the faulting associated with Grand Coulee Dam, is this dam complex a "sitting duck" in the event of a massive earthquake affecting this region? More about this matter later.

So, what other information is there about fault zones at the dam complex?

The 1971 news article linked below speaks of "a fault zone in the Wing Dam area of the Third Powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam.

The fault zone at the Wing Dam was given a cover cap of "shotcrete" to shield it from the elements, during construction of the Third Powerhouse and Wing Dam at the eastern end of the main dam.



The button below accesses a picture of Grand Coulee Dam. The Third Powerhouse and its Wing Dam is on the left, or eastern side of the picture, angled off the end of the main dam.



The picture linked below is an aerial view, looking south, of the dam complex and the reservoir immediately behind it.

The writer believes this section of the reservoir covers evidence of the major Lewis and Clark Fault Zone (LCZ) which passes through this area.

The writer also believes that this reservoir covers evidence of a major rift system which is associated with the LCZ. This major rift system will be discussed further down in this side-bar.



The satellite photo, linked below, notes Grand Coulee Dam on the left side. The portion of Franklin Delano Roosevelt Lake extending to the right (or east) of the dam generally resides in the extension of the Lewis and Clark Fault Zone.




A Time to Consider

There is something which truly needs to be considered in relation to the very important Grand Coulee Dam complex, for the well-being of those in the Pacific Northwest may depend on it.

A large amount of grout and concrete may be able to seal leakage through fissures and faults beneath the dam, when the groundmass is sitting still. But what happens during a massive earthquake?

When the ancient Lewis & Clark fault line once again begins to release its pent up energy and the groundmasses begin to move violently, no amount of grout or concrete will hold things in place.

In a massive earthquake, the Grand Coulee Dam complex may begin to leak severely. There is also a possibility that the dam could experience a catastrophic failure.

In the event of a catastrophic failure, there may be much carnage downstream. To add to the troubles would be the immediate loss of a large amount of electricity to cities of the Pacific Northwest. There would also be a large loss of irrigation waters to agricultural lands in the Columbia Basin.

Is Grand Coulee Dam simply a ticking time bomb waiting to go off? Only time will tell on this issue.





Lewis & Clark Fault Zone

Passing from Montana, through Idaho and into northeast Washington, how the Lewis & Clark Fault Zone (LCZ) could potentially affect Grand Coulee Dam has been considered in the section above. But there is actually a whole lot more to this story, as we shall soon see.

The LCZ does not stop at Grand Coulee Dam, but continues on a westward track. The map linked here, in the upper-right area, shows the LCZ traveling westward to the area around Chelan, Washington, which is located at the lower end of Lake Chelan.

The location of Chelan, Washington, on a general westward track from Grand Coulee Dam, can be more easily visualized using the map linked here.

The writer has reason to believe that the LCZ does not stop in the vicinity of Lake Chelan. It appears there is evidence which can lead to a conclusion that the LCZ, or a major fault associated with it, continues westward under the Cascade Mountains and into the Puget Sound region somewhere near Seattle. This can be more easily visualized on the map linked here.


A Precedent

At the top of this side-bar is information about geology associated with the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. A webpage, linked here, speaks about some very important findings by USGS personnel.

Geologists have found evidence of "an interconnected [fault] system underlying the Cascades, from Puget Sound to Umtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Mountain, which loom above Hanford Nuclear Reservation..." Now the story gets very interesting.

The USGS personnel have found evidence of faults "at depths indicating that the faults formed long before the range's volcanoes did." To the USGS scientists, that tends to indicate that the faults currently "extend all the way through the mountain range."


Clearer Picture

It is time to consider the geology which is being dealt with in the Pacific Northwest.

The makeup and contour of the ground which we see as we look across the upper surface of the earth is not necessarily the same as that which is at various depths below our feet. The earth does not necessarily have uniform layers beneath our feet.

The "faults at depths," referred to in the section above, would tend to indicate that these are hidden faults which are in a more "basement" rock formation.

The "faults at depths" may be concealed within a particular rock type which is beneath various layers of groundmass residing above them which are of possibly a quite different characteristic and make-up.

What we are now talking about is shown graphically in the following links. What is shown in these graphics would be similar to slicing down through the layers of the earth and looking at these various layers from the side.

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In Days of Old

The ancient top surface of the earth in what is now the Cascadia region, plus the Columbia Basin east of the Cascades, is not what we see now. At this time, what was formly the top surface of the ground became covered by numerous basalt flows, which completely hid the unique, faulted rock formations which reside below.

The webpage linked here declares: "The Columbia River Basalts cover over most of the ancient rocks of the former edge of North America in Washington State."

The USGS webpage linked here declares: "Over 40,000 cubic miles of basaltic lava...cover parts of Washington, Oregon and Idaho... The topography present prior to the Columbia River Basalt eruptions was buried and smoothed over by flow upon flow of lava. Over 300 high-volume individual lava flows have been identified, along with countless smaller flows."

There is an important news article from the Friday, December 18, 1981 issue of the Spokane Chronicle, which is linked here. The article, titled 'Giant rift spawns wisecracks,' was located on page 5 of that newspaper. The article declares the following:

"Geologists haven't been able to trace fault systems from north Idaho into Washington, in part because of alluvial deposits and the basalt covering over older rocks west of Spokane."

It is faults, and possibly a major rift system, which are present in the original groundmass, now deeply buried beneath later basalt flows, which pass beneath the much younger Cascade Mountains. As noted above, these old faults are proving hard to locate and track.


Columbia Lava Plateau

Just how deeply buried are the "faults at depth" which are contained in the original, ancient groundmass? And, just how big of an area was buried beneath these massive flows?

The Wikipedia entry on 'Columbia Plateau,' linked here, indicates that basalt flows engulfed (or utterly buried) about 63,0000 square miles of what is now the Pacific Northwest up to a depth of more than 6,000 feet.

A webpage from the Oregon State University website, linked here, states that: "At some locations, the lava is more than 3,500 m [11,500 feet] thick." This means that in certain places, the ancient surface of the earth (with its unique set of faults) may be up to this deeply buried beneath the present surface of the earth.


The Columbia Basin

Hanford Nuclear Reservation, which is mentioned in the sections above, resides within the Columbia Basin. The fault lines at depth which pass by Hanford to travel under the Cascade Mountains to the Puget Sound region, as indicated by USGS geologists, are also located within the Columbia Basin.

Grand Coulee Dam is located at the northern edge of the Columbia Basin, in the region where basalt flows transition to mountains. The Lewis & Clark Fault Zone (LCZ) or an extension of it, as noted in sections above, passes beneath the northern end of the Columbia Basin, as it travels into the region of Lake Chelan and possibly beyond. So, how far below the surface may be this major fault line?

A webpage about the Columbia Basin, accessed via the button below, is by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources. It possibly can help in our search for an answer to the question about how deep the ancient LCZ (and other faults or rifts associated with it) may be buried beneath the later basalt flows.


The page linked above states that the Columbia Basin region "is overlain with loess blown in by the wind and deposits from cataclysmic glacial floods, underlain by thousands of feet of Columbia River Basalt Group lava flows."

If the LCZ and other major faults associated with it reside in "basement" rock formations thousands of feet below the present surface of the basin region, these faults could readily pass beneath the much younger Cascade Mountains and into the Puget Sound region. At this point, these faults could readily link with the Cascadia network of faults.

Is there anything which may tend to give a stronger indication that the LCZ or faults associated with it could pass under the Cascade Mountains and into the Puget Sound region? Is there any indication that it may be linked to a much, much larger network of faults?

In answer, consider the information presented in the section which follows.





The Giant Rift

The news article linked below presents information about a continental-size rift system. This major rift system stretches diagonally across the North American continent, from Georgia to Washington state. The general location of the rift is shown on a map which is included in the article.

It appears that this big rift or crack in the "basement" of the continental landmass was discovered by analysing satellite data in 1981. It should be noted that this rift system "is 90 miles across at its widest and extends deep into the earth's crust."


The article above makes one very clear point. It states that "the Washington extension of the giant crack has apparently been hidden by the area's lava flows" and that this giant crack in the basement of the continental landmass "may shed more light on the area's fault systems..."


1700 Miles Long

The giant rift is also called the Arvidson Lineament. The news article linked below gives a little more information on this giant rift. It is 1,700 miles long. It is an underground fracture in the earth -- an actual underground separation of the earth -- which extends from Washington to Georgia. There is at least one nuclear facility located near the rift.




Potential Shear Zone

The first article linked below states that the crack "could be one of the world's largest continental rifts." The second article notes that the giant rift intersects with the New Madrid fault, in the central portion of the United States. The third article calls it an "inactive rift," but only time will tell the truth on this matter. The third article also calls it "an extensive subterranean scar," which is potentially a "shear zone."




A 2016 Webpage

The title of the webpage linked below is 'Scientists Found a 1,700 Mile Crack Across the USA. Here's What You Need to Know." The page speaks about these "Cracks Across America," which apparently are in the form of rift zones.

The page below notes that these zones "may conceal large fracture type faults where scientists may not be able to identify where these hidden fractures may unleash catastrophic earthquakes."

Information in the page notes that this cross-continent rift "cuts through the New Madrid Seismic Zone..." And, for people in the Cascadia region, there appears to be a new present for you.

It appears that new research indicates that the giant rift "combines with a MegaShear zone to the middle of Washington State and possibly with the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL) - which reaches to the Pacific Ocean near Port Angeles, Washington. Thus the total length may total nearly 2,200 miles."


The page above states that hidden fractures in these lineaments make them dangerous. It states that "these linear rift zones have exhibited the ability to unleash very large earthquakes." But scientists are now faced with a problem. They "are unable to identify if any section of these linear rift zones may be at risk of a sudden large earthquake."

Scientist have another problem. The hidden fractures are deeply buried towards the "basement" of the continental landmass. For this reason, the scientists have no good data about these hidden fractures.

In essence, the scientist are "running blind" about this cross-continent rift system and the true hazard which it presents. It appears that all their high-tech equipment is of no use in obtaining valuable data about these deeply buried fractures, because of an access issue.

Then comes a piece of information which may be valuable in the Cascadia region. The page notes that "the sediment or crust above hides any telltale sign of crustal creep or stress." It appears that a similar thing is happening in the Cascadia region.


Lewis & Clark Link ?

It appears that the Lewis and Clark Fault Zone which passes into eastern Washington may be associated with the giant rift which travels diagonally across the United States through the "basement" of the continental landmass.

The information in the webpage linked in the section above tends to indicate this type of concept is very probable. But, there is more to this story.

It appears that a NASA-funded report confirms this concept as being a reality. Information from this report is available via a link in the section below.


NASA Confirmation

The abstract linked below comes from the NASA website. The abstract speaks about a very wide gravity low which "extends from southeastern Nebraska, through the Ozark Plateau, and across the Mississippi embayment." But there is more.

The abstract states: "The low is also aligned with the Lewis and Clark lineament (Montana to Washington), forming a linear feature of approximately 2800 km in length." So, it appears that we have the Washington connection with the giant, cross continent rift.

At the top of the NASA page, linked below, is a link to the full text of the NASA-funded report titled 'Structure of the midcontinent basement. Topography, gravity, seismic, and remote sensing.' The PDF file for this report is 8.4 MB is size. It is also accessed via the second button below.




To the Pacific Ocean

There is another thing to consider about the giant rift. Take a look at the map linked here, which notes the general location and alignment of the giant crack in the basement rocks of the continental landmass. Look at the northwest end of the rift in Washington state. Now, mentally, extend the rift out into the Pacific Ocean.

After mentally extending the rift into the Pacific Ocean, then consider the shape of the northern end of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington state. Could the angle on the northern edge of the Olympic Peninsula be related to the alignment of the giant continental rift?

Now, consider a map of Washington state, which is linked here. Click on the map to zoom in on the upper-left corner. Could the giant rift in the basement of the continent be part of the reason for that gap in the landmass between the Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island, which contains the deep waters (link) in the Strait of Juan de Fuca submarine canyon?


A Cascadia Link ?

There is more to consider here. Look at the map linked here. Zoom in on the map and look at the gap in the landmass below Vancouver Island which likely contains the giant rift. Could the giant continental rift continue out into the Pacific Ocean to then link up with the so-called Cascadia Subduction Zone?


Sovanco Fracture

Let us consider another thing. Look at the map linked here. Zoom in on the upper-left corner. Is there any possibility that the giant rift in the basement of the continent could be related to the Sovanco Fracture Zone, which is located on the southwestern edge of the Explorer Plate? For another look at the lay of the ocean floor in this area, zoom in on and examine the Ocean Explorer image linked here.


Seismic Activities

Let us not stop here, but let us now consider another important issue.

Could this giant crack in "the basement" of the continental landmass be associated with known, but relatively unexplained past seismic activities in Washington state?

As we consider an answer, let us examine the information presented in the section which follows.